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1.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effects of smoking on quality of life over time, using the Years of Healthy Life (YHL) construct. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: The Health and Retirement Study (HRS) survey (N=12,652) of persons 50 to 60 years old and the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) survey (N=8,124) of persons > or =70 years old, plus spouses regardless of age, followed from 1992/1993 to 2000. STUDY DESIGN: Years of healthy life from baseline to death were estimated. Regression models were developed with smoking as the main explanatory variable and with both YHL and years of life remaining as the outcome variables. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Smoking was strongly and consistently related to YHL lost. In HRS, individuals who had quit smoking at least 15 years prior to baseline had a similar number of YHL left as never smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to encourage smoking cessation should emphasize the impact of these factors on quality of life.  相似文献   
2.
This study examined the difference in dietary intake between middle-aged and elderly Japanese and Chinese. Volunteers aged 50–79 living in two cities in both Japan and China were recruited in local community service centers and were asked to complete a 3-day diet recording. The final results were based on 356 subjects (166 Chinese and 190 Japanese). In men, the Japanese subjects significantly consumed more energy, with a large proportion of the energy coming from carbohydrates, dietary fiber, vitamin A, vitamin B2, vitamin C and they consumed less iron, and a lower proportion of energy from protein and fat than in the Chinese subjects. In women, the Japanese subjects had significantly higher intakes of energy, the proportion of energy from carbohydrates, dietary fiber, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin C and they consumed less iron, with the proportion of energy from protein and from fat in comparison with the Chinese women. Fat intake provided more than 29% of the total dietary energy in Chinese subjects. Daily intake of food items was significantly greater in the Japanese participants, both men and women (18.54 ±2.85, 20.11 ± 2.40, respectively), than in the Chinese subjects (14.11 ± 3.62, 15.51 ± 4.15, respectively) (p<0.01 by Mann WhitneyU-test). The present study suggests that the middleaged and elderly Chinese subjects should increase their variety of foods consumed while decreasing their consumption of high-fat foods. For the Japanese subjects, the higher intake of total calories among the woman should also be noted.  相似文献   
3.
目的分析安徽省农村社区中老年妇女肥胖患病率及其危险因素,为开展农村社区中老年妇女肥胖防治工作提供依据。方法采用整群抽样方法选择45岁及其以上的中老年妇女进行入户健康状况调查和体检。结果共调查3 319名中老年农村妇女,其中超重959人(标化率28.89%),肥胖270人(标化率8.06%),腹型肥胖为2 052人(标化率60.86%)。≥65岁年龄组妇女体质指数(BMI)低于其他年龄组,腰臀比高于其他年龄组。55~64岁中老年妇女超重和肥胖患病率均高于其他年龄组,≥65岁年龄组妇女的腹型肥胖患病率高于其他年龄组。Logistic回归分析结果表明,年龄、职业、睡眠时间、蔬菜摄入、蛋类摄入和水果摄入是肥胖的影响因素,其中,年龄小、蔬菜摄入多和蛋类摄入多为保护因素;职业(务农、务工和家务)、睡眠时间长和水果摄入多为危险因素。结论肥胖与多种危险因素密切相关,农村社区中老年妇女超重、肥胖和腹型肥胖患病率高,应积极开展健康知识教育,提高农村社区中老年妇女的保健意识和健康水平。  相似文献   
4.
Elderly people are subject to higher levels of oxidative stress than are young people. Vitamin E, as a powerful antioxidant residing mainly in biomembranes, may provide effective protection against oxidative membrane damage and resultant age-related deterioration, especially in the elderly. We hypothesized that appropriate levels of vitamin E supplementation would protect erythrocyte membranes from oxidative stress and thus improve membrane fluidity in healthy middle-aged and elderly people. To test this, we conducted a 4-month double-blind, randomized trial in which 180 healthy subjects (55-70 years old) were randomly divided into 4 groups: group C (control), and 3 treatment groups in which daily doses of 100 mg (VE1), 200 mg (VE2), and 300 mg (VE3) dl-α-tocopheryl acetate were administered. We measured plasma α-tocopherol concentration, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase levels, erythrocyte hemolysis, and erythrocyte membrane fluidity at the beginning and end of the trial. After 4 months supplementation, plasma α-tocopherol concentrations in the 3 treatment groups had increased by 71%, 78%, and 95%, respectively (all P < .01), and significant decreases in plasma malondialdehyde concentrations were observed in these groups (all P < .05). Erythrocyte hemolysis was decreased by 20% to 38% after vitamin E supplementation (all P < .05), and in addition, groups VE2 and VE3 showed dramatic improvements in erythrocyte membrane fluidity (P < .01). Surprisingly, superoxide dismutase activity also decreased significantly in the treatment groups (all P < .05). In summary, vitamin E supplementation apparently alleviates oxidative stress in healthy middle-aged to elderly people, at least in part by improving erythrocyte membrane fluidity and reducing erythrocyte hemolysis.  相似文献   
5.
目的 了解上海市闵行区中老年居民抗菌药物使用相关知识、态度、行为现状和需求,为后续干预提供依据.方法 采用多阶段抽样对上海市闵行区45~74岁中老年居民进行问卷调查.结果 共调查500人,平均年龄(59.92±7.52)岁,中老年居民抗菌药核心知识、态度和行为的正确率分别为53.04%、64.88%和73.48%.性别、文化程度、职业和收入分别对抗菌药核心知识、态度和行为产生不同影响.被调查者主要从医务人员(84.6%)获得抗菌药相关知识和技能.结论 中老年人抗菌药使用知识、态度、行为正确率相差较大,文化程度可能是主要影响因素.在未来的干预中,需要考虑低文化程度人群的适应性,并同时加强对医生的宣传教育工作.  相似文献   
6.
目的对宁波市社区居民中医体质类型与慢性病及相关因素进行分析,为城市社区居民的中医养生保健和健康管理提供依据。方法采用中医医师检查和调查员问卷调查相结合方式对50岁以上社区居民进行中医体质类型辨识及慢性病患病情况调查,并进行相关分析。结果 3 100名居民中,平和质占34.57%,8种偏颇体质占65.43%,其中痰湿质最多占21.38%。其中2 486名慢性病者的痰湿质(22.77%)和血瘀质(2.57%)检出率明显高于无慢性病者(15.77%和0.33%)。高血压者痰湿质和血瘀质检出率高于非高血压者;高脂血症者痰湿质、血瘀质和特禀质检出率较高;糖尿病和心脑血管病者血瘀质检出率较高;慢性支气管炎者气虚质检出率较高;慢性胃炎者阳虚质、血瘀质和湿热质检出率较高。体育锻炼、吸烟、睡眠习惯与中医体质有关联。生活不规律及每天睡眠时间少于8 h偏颇体质检出率较高。体瘦对象气虚质和湿热质检出率较高。结论中老年居民中医体质类型与高血压、高脂血症和慢性胃炎等慢性病存在一定关联,缺乏体育锻炼、吸烟、睡眠不规律和睡眠时间少及体质偏瘦或肥胖与偏颇体质高存在正相关。  相似文献   
7.
目的探讨青岛市黄岛区农村中老年人抑郁的流行特征及其危险因素。方法2009年11月30日至12月1513,采用多阶段(整群分层与随机抽样结合)抽样方法抽取黄岛地区35~74岁常住居民502名,对其应用ZUNG抑郁自评量表(SDS)进行面对面的问卷调查,整理后对数据进行卡方检验及Logistic回归分析。结果502名调查对象中有446例存在不同程度的抑郁症状。其中轻度151例(30.08%),中度282例(56.18%),重度13例(2.58%);不同BMI、血压、血糖和血脂者抑郁状况差异均无统计学意义(P〉O.05);多元非条件Logistic回归分析发现,性别、年龄、收入水平、受教育程度为影响中老年人抑郁水平的因素。结论抑郁症状是黄岛地区农村中老年人常见的心理健康问题,且其发生情况与多种因素有关。  相似文献   
8.
目的 了解上海市中老年人步行现状及其影响因素,为科学指导中老年人群健康步行提供参考依据.方法 采用多阶段整群随机抽样方法抽取上海市卢湾区社区、杨浦区社区、闵行区社区80个居委会900名≥46周岁非社区体育健身专业队员的社区居民进行问卷调查,并利用计步器收集其7d内体力活动数据.结果 上海市中老年人全程总步数为(9 342.423±3 684.230)步,全程有效步数为(2 274.726±2 534.046)步;仅38.9%的中老年人每日可以达到卫生部“日行一万步”的推荐量;通过最优尺度回归模型显示,文化程度、社区类型、身体状况自我评价、体质指数和参加体育锻炼情况是上海市中老年人全程总步数的主要影响因素,年龄和参加体育锻炼情况是上海市中老年人全程有效步数的主要影响因素.结论 上海市中老年人步行行为受社会人口学特征、健康情况及日常行为习惯等多种因素影响.  相似文献   
9.
目的探讨辛伐他汀-9前列腺特异性抗原(prostatespecificantigen,PSA)的关系。方法对54例辛伐他汀组服用辛伐他汀6个月和74例对照组患者进行服药前后血清总前列腺特异性抗原(t-PSA)、血清游离前列腺特异性抗原,总前列腺特异性抗原(f/t-PSA)、血肌酐、尿素氮、总胆固醇、三酰甘油、空腹血糖、年龄和体质量指数的观察。结果服药前两组比较.除总胆固醇外.其他各项指标差异均无统计学意义(P〉0.05)。服药后辛伐他汀组和对照组比较,PSA、f/t-PSA、总胆固醇明显下降(P〈0.011。服药前后两组分别比较,辛伐他汀组服药后较服药前PSA、f/t-PSA、总胆固醇和三酰甘油均明显降低(P〈0.05):而对照组各项指标差异均无统计学意义沪〉0.05)。服药前后t-PSA、f/t-PSA、总胆固醇、三酰甘油、空腹血糖、血肌酐和尿素氮的差值在辛伐他汀组和对照组之间比较,差异均有统计学意义(P〈0.01)。结论口服辛伐他汀可以降低血PSA水平,临床意义有待进一步观察。  相似文献   
10.
合理引导居民基层就医是落实社区首诊、推动建立双向转诊制度的关键。基于中国健康与养老追踪调查(CHARLS)数据,以城乡中老年群体的基层医疗消费选择为视角,利用Probit模型、工具变量法和分群体回归检验法,分析城乡中老年群体基层就诊、住院的现实影响因素,探讨制约中老年群体基层就医的客观条件。研究发现,城乡中老年群体的基层就医行为受个体特征、家庭特征、医疗机构特征、医疗支出、医疗保障等多维因素影响;结合实证分析与讨论,应通过加强教育宣传,发展基层医疗卫生机构能力,理顺医疗服务价格和加快基本医疗保险政策改革等措施引导城乡中老年群体的基层就医行为,进而推进我国"双诊制"建设。  相似文献   
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