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1.

Objective

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been associated with meteorological variables and pollutant levels. However, these relationships have rarely been studied in São Paulo, Brazil.

Methods

From 1996 to 2000, biometeorological indices including meteorological variables such as temperature, relative humidity, and wind were used to measure thermal comfort in elderly people mortality (>65 years old), and CVD was quantified.

Results

Statistical analysis showed a significant negative loading between CVD and meteorological variables as well as thermal comfort indices. The CVD curve was a U-shaped, showing higher value for cold stress than for heat stress. The results clearly show seasonal variations in CVD mortality rates, which were higher in winter. Meteorological variables were found to play an important role as well as through the thermal comfort indices. The air pollutants, PM10 and SO2, except ozone, presented positive loadings with CVD, albeit less than statistically significant.  相似文献   
2.
Coffee seems to have distinct acute and long-term effects on health, which can be modified by genetic background. Coffee consumption is potentially protective against the development of type 2 diabetes, but given the lack of a solid biological basis for this association, and the possible adverse cardiovascular effects of coffee, recommendations for optimal coffee intake are difficult to establish.  相似文献   
3.
OBJECTIVE: To determine how change in BMI over 8 years is associated with risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) among middle aged men. METHODS: Prospective cohort study among 13,230 healthy men (aged 51.6+/-8.7 years) in the Physicians' Health Study. BMI was collected at baseline in 1982 and after 8 years, at which time follow-up began. Subsequent CVD events were collected and confirmed through March 31, 2005. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated BMI at 8 years and risk of CVD, 8-year change in BMI and risk of CVD, and whether change in BMI added prognostic information after the consideration of BMI at 8 years. RESULTS: 1308 major CVD events occurred over 13.5 years. A higher BMI at year 8 was associated with an increased risk of CVD. Compared to a stable BMI (+/-0.5 kg/m(2)), a 0.5-2.0 kg/m(2) increase had a multivariable-adjusted RR of 1.00 (0.86-1.16). A >/=2.0 kg/m(2) increase had a multivariable-adjusted RR of 1.39 (1.16-1.68), however further adjustment for BMI reduced the RR to 1.00 (0.81-1.23). A decrease in BMI had a multivariable RR of 1.23 (1.07-1.42) which was unaffected by adjustment for BMI at 8 years. CONCLUSION: A higher BMI and a rising BMI were both associated with an increased risk of CVD, however an increasing BMI did not add prognostic information once current BMI was considered. In contrast, a declining BMI was associated with an increased risk of CVD independent of current BMI.  相似文献   
4.
BACKGROUND: People of South Asian (SA) origin have an increased risk of premature coronary heart disease. In children of SA origin, there is an increased prevalence of obesity and evidence of insulin resistance. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children often persist into adulthood. Low levels of physical activity are likely to be linked to the rise in obesity. OBJECTIVE: To determine levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviours in secondary school pupils in the UK, including comparison of SA and white European (WE) children and those with and without a family history of cardiovascular disease. METHOD: Questionnaire survey conducted within an action research study in five inner city secondary schools serving a predominantly SA population. RESULTS: We obtained 3601 responses from 76% of eligible pupils. WE pupils were more likely to have walked to and from school compared to SAs. However, overall we identified low levels of physical activity and higher levels of inactive behaviours in both ethnic groups. Almost half (46%) of respondents spent four or more hours per day watching television or videos or playing computer games. An overall low level of active behaviour during school breaks was particularly emphasized in girls. We found no evidence of an association between physical activity levels and family history of cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need for those with responsibility for young people's health, including parents, schools and community health providers, to consider and address the need for effective interventions to encourage increased physical activity levels.  相似文献   
5.
Background Dietary electrolytes influence blood pressure, but their effect on clinical outcomes remains to be established. We examined sodium and potassium intake in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in an unselected older population. Methods A case–cohort analysis was performed in the Rotterdam Study among subjects aged 55 years and over, who were followed for 5 years. Baseline urinary samples were analyzed for sodium and potassium in 795 subjects who died, 206 with an incident myocardial infarction and 181 subjects with an incident stroke, and in 1,448 randomly selected subjects. For potassium, dietary data were additionally obtained by food-frequency questionnaire for 78% of the cohort. Results There was no consistent association of urinary sodium, potassium, or sodium/potassium ratio with CVD and all-cause mortality over the range of intakes observed in this population. Dietary potassium estimated by food frequency questionnaire, however, was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality in subjects initially free of CVD and hypertension (RR = 0.71 per standard deviation increase; 95% confidence interval: 0.51–1.00). We observed a significant positive association between urinary sodium/potassium ratio and all-cause mortality, but only in overweight subjects who were initially free of CVD and hypertension (RR = 1.19 (1.02–1.39) per unit). Conclusion The effect of sodium and potassium intake on CVD morbidity and mortality in Western societies remains to be established.  相似文献   
6.
It is well known that tobacco smoke exposure is related to the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and events. One mechanism could be that tobacco smoke acts on the cardiovascular system by altering the autonomic function and/or inducing inflammatory responses. We used data from 3 744 men aged 67–77 years from the city of Oslo that participated in the health screening for the Oslo II Health Study in 2000, to explore associations between C-reactive protein and environmental exposures including exposure to tobacco smoke products. Levels of C-reactive protein were higher in current smokers (2.05 mg/l, IQR, 1.11–4.17 mg/l), compared to former-smokers (1.58 mg/l, IQR, 0.83–3.03 mg/l) and non-smokers (1.26 mg/l, IQR, 0.65–2.40 mg/l). The risk of elevated C-reactive protein increased with both numbers of current cigarettes smoked per day and numbers of pack-years of smoking, when other factors were adjusted for (P < 0.001). We found a positive dose–response relationship between amount of current cigarette smoking and elevated C-reactive protein levels. These findings support the idea that the induction or exacerbation of inflammation could be a mechanism by which smoking promotes atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.  相似文献   
7.
Background Little is known about the effects of commuting physical activity on biological cardiovascular risk factors although such knowledge may form an important basis for interventions aimed at reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) by increasing physical activity. We examined the associations between commuting, leisure time and total physical activity and biological risk factors for CVD. Design A cross-sectional study of men and women, who participated in a health screening programme. Methods The study population comprised persons aged 30–60 years from a population-based random sample, response rate 53% (n = 6,906). Weight, height, waist circumference and blood pressure were measured and blood samples were collected. Physical activity was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Results Time spent on commuting, leisure time and total physical activity was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and negatively associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, waist circumference and body mass index. Time spent on total physical activity was negatively associated with total cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure. Among men there was no relationship between time spent on physical activity and systolic blood pressure. Time spent on commuting physical activity and total physical activity was negatively associated with systolic blood pressure among women. Conclusion Commuting physical activity, independent of leisure time physical activity, was associated with a healthier level of most of the cardiovascular risk factors. An increase in commuting physical activity in the population may therefore reduce the incidence of CVD.  相似文献   
8.
Many long-term prospective studies have reported on associations of cardiovascular diseases with circulating lipid markers and/or inflammatory markers. Studies have not, however, generally been designed to provide reliable estimates under different circumstances and to correct for within-person variability. The Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration has established a central database on over 1.1 million participants from 104 prospective population-based studies, in which subsets have information on lipid and inflammatory markers, other characteristics, as well as major cardiovascular morbidity and cause-specific mortality. Information on repeat measurements on relevant characteristics has been collected in approximately 340,000 participants to enable estimation of and correction for within-person variability. Re-analysis of individual data will yield up to approximately 69,000 incident fatal or nonfatal first ever major cardiovascular outcomes recorded during about 11.7 million person years at risk. The primary analyses will involve age-specific regression models in people without known baseline cardiovascular disease in relation to fatal or nonfatal first ever coronary heart disease outcomes. This initiative will characterize more precisely and in greater detail than has previously been possible the shape and strength of the age- and sex-specific associations of several lipid and inflammatory markers with incident coronary heart disease outcomes (and, secondarily, with other incident cardiovascular outcomes) under a wide range of circumstances. It will, therefore, help to determine to what extent such associations are independent from possible confounding factors and to what extent such markers (separately and in combination) provide incremental predictive value. Authors/collaborators in the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration are listed at the end of this article.  相似文献   
9.
BACKGROUND: In Russia, cardiovascular mortality is among the highest in the world. Behaviours related to the development of cardiovascular disease are usually adopted in childhood and adolescence. Very little information exists on prevalence and trends of risk factors among Russian youth. This study aims to investigate changes in the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among adolescents in the Republic of Karelia, Russia, from 1995 to 2004. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys on chronic disease risk factors were carried out among 15-year-old adolescents in Pitk?ranta region, in the Republic of Karelia. The surveys were conducted in all 10 secondary schools in the Pitk?ranta region. All ninth-grade students in 1995 (N = 385, response rate 95%) and in 2004 (N = 395, response rate 85%) were included in the survey samples. RESULTS: Systolic blood pressure decreased statistically significantly among boys (from 119 to 116 mmHg). Diastolic blood pressure decreased statistically significantly among both girls (from 64 to 59 mmHg) and boys (from 62 to 59 mmHg). Total cholesterol increased statistically significantly only among girls (from 3.9 to 4.1 mmol/l). Body mass index did not exhibit any significant changes in both genders. Daily smoking rate doubled statistically significantly among girls from 7% to 15%. CONCLUSION: The study results show changes in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among adolescents in the Republic of Karelia occurring over the last decade. Active measures need to be taken to prevent the increase in smoking prevalence, especially among girls, and to avert the unfavourable development of other risk factors in the future.  相似文献   
10.
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