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1.
BACKGROUND: Hippocampal atrophy is an early feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) but it has also been reported in vascular dementia (VaD). It is uncertain whether hippocampal size can help differentiate the two disorders. METHODS: We assessed 90 stroke/TIA patients 3-6 months after the event, and 75 control subjects, with neuropsychological tests, medical and psychiatric examination and brain MRI scans. A diagnosis of VaD, vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) or no cognitive impairment (NCI) was reached by consensus on agreed criteria. T1-weighted MRI was used to obtain total intracranial volume (TICV), gray and white matter volume, CSF volume, hippocampus and amygdala volumes, and T2-weighted scans for white matter hyperintensity (WMH) ratings. RESULTS: Stroke/TIA patients had more white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), larger ventricle-to-brain ratios and smaller amygdalae than controls, but hippocampus size and gray and white matter volumes were not different. WMHs and amygdala but not hippocampal volume distinguished stroke/TIA patients with VaD and VaMCI and without NCI and amygdala volumes. Right hippocampus volume significantly correlated with new visual learning. CONCLUSIONS: Stroke/TIA patients and patients with post-stroke VaMCI or mild VaD do not have hippocampal atrophy. The amygdala is smaller in stroke/TIA patients, especially in those with cognitive impairment, and this may be accounted for by white matter lesions. The hippocampus volume relates to episodic memory, especially right hippocampus and new visual learning. A longitudinal study of these subjects will determine whether hippocampal atrophy is a late development in VaD.  相似文献   
2.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Empirical studies to clarify the outcomes in Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI) are needed. We compared cognitive, functional, and behavioural outcomes in patients with VCI to patients with no cognitive impairment (NCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Secondary analysis of the Consortium to Investigate Vascular Impairment of Cognition (CIVIC), a multi-centre Canadian memory clinic 30-month cohort study. RESULTS: Of 1347 patients, 938 were eligible for follow-up, of whom 239 (24.5%) were lost and 29 (3%) had died. Of the remaining 697 patients, 125 had NCI, 229 had VCI, and 343 had AD at baseline. Compared to people with NCI, of whom 20-40% showed progression based on cognitive and functional measures, those with VCI were more likely to progress (50-65%), as were people with AD (50-80%) (p<0.01). More people with VCI showed progression of affective symptoms (30%) than those with NCI (12%) or AD (15% p<0.01). Progression of impaired judgment (rated clinically) in VCI (15%) was similar to AD (11%) but more common than in NCI (4%, p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Most people with VCI show readily detectable progression by 30 months. Depressive symptoms were more common and more progressive in VCI than in Alzheimer's disease, whereas clinical evidence of progressive executive dysfunction was common in both AD and VCI.  相似文献   
3.
The prevalence, morphology and pathogenesis of vascular dementia (VaD), recently termed vascular cognitive impairment, are a matter of discussion, and currently used clinical diagnostic criteria show moderate sensitivity (average 50%) and variable specificity (range 64–98%). In Western clinic-based series, VaD is suggested in 8–10% of cognitively impaired aged subjects. Its prevalence in autopsy series varies from 0.03 to 58%, with reasonable values of 8–15%, while in Japan it is seen in 22–35%. Neuropathologic changes associated with cognitive impairment include multifocal and/or diffuse disease and focal lesions: multi-infarct encephalopathy, white matter lesions or arteriosclerotic subcortical (leuko)encephalopathy, multilacunar state, mixed cortico-subcortical type, borderline/watershed lesions, rare granular cortical atrophy, post-ischemic encephalopathy and hippocampal sclerosis. They result from systemic, cardiac and local large or small vessel disease. Recent data indicate that cognitive decline is commonly associated with widespread small ischemic/vascular lesions (microinfarcts, lacunes) throughout the brain with predominant involvement of subcortical and functionally important brain areas. Their pathogenesis is multifactorial, and their pathophysiology affects neuronal networks involved in cognition, memory, behavior and executive functioning. Vascular lesions often coexist with Alzheimer disease (AD) and other pathologies. Minor cerebrovascular lesions, except for severe amyloid angiopathy, appear not essential for cognitive decline in full-blown AD, while both mild Alzheimer pathology and small vessel disease may interact synergistically. The lesion pattern of “pure” VaD, related to arteriosclerosis and microangiopathies, differs from that in mixed-type dementia (AD with vascular encephalopathy), more often showing large infarcts, which suggests different pathogenesis of both types of lesions. Due to the high variability of cerebrovascular pathology and its causative factors, no validated neuropathologic criteria for VaD are available, and a large variability across laboratories still exists in the procedures for morphologic examination and histology techniques. After a lecture at the XI International Congress of Neuropathology, San Francisco, CA, on 11 September 2006. Addendum In a recent clinicopathological evaluation of 79 autopsy cases derived from a prospective longitudinal study of subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) and Alzheimer disease (AD), Chui et al. [555] found significant cerebrovascular lesions (CVL) in 30%, AD pathology in 54%, and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) in 18%. Statistical assessment showed that all three pathology variables contributed independently to cognitive status, but only the neuritic Braak scores contributed significantly to cognitive impairment, indicating that advancing AD pathology overwhelms the effects of the two other factors that, in the absence of considerable AD, contribute to mild cognitive impairment. A recent histologic-neuroimaging study in two patients with SIVD showed correspondence between subinsular T2 hyperintensive lesions and demyelination, gliosis, and dilated perivascular spaces [556].  相似文献   
4.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is a need for empirical studies to define criteria for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) subtypes. In this paper, we report the predictive validity of a subtype classification scheme based on clinical and radiographic features. METHODS: Nine Canadian memory clinics participated in the Consortium to Investigate Vascular Impairment of Cognition. This cohort consisted of 1347 patients, of whom 324 had VCI, and was followed for up to 30 months. RESULTS: Clinical and neuroimaging features defined three subtypes: vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia, (n=97), vascular dementia (n=101) and mixed neurodegenerative/vascular dementia (n=126). Any ischemic lesion on neuroimaging increased the odds (odds ratio=9.31; 95% confidence interval 6.46, 13.39) of a VCI diagnosis. No VCI subtype, however, was associated with a specific neuroimaging abnormality. Compared to those with no cognitive impairment, patients with each VCI subtype had higher rates of death and institutionalization (hazard ratio for combined adverse events=6.08, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Both clinical features and radiographic features help establish a diagnosis of VCI. The outcomes of VCI subtypes, however, are more strongly associated with clinical features than with radiographic ones.  相似文献   
5.
Summary. Background: Few studies exist on ERPs and patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI). This latter is a quite homogeneous subtype of vascular dementia whose cognitive profile is quite different from that of Alzheimer disease (AD). Aims: The present study aims at comparing the ERPs profile both in patients with SVCI and in patients with AD. Subjects and methods: ERPs and psychometric tests were collected from 39 healthy elderly controls, 51 patients with SVCI and 43 patients with AD. Subjects mentally count high pitched target tones that were randomly intermixed with low pitched frequent tones. We measured ERPs latencies (N1, P2, N2 and P3), and interpeak latencies (N1–P3, N1–P2, N1–N2). Results: Grand averaged potentials in SVCI showed a significant increase of P3 latency. AD patients showed a prolongation of N1, P2, N2, P3 latencies. As far as interpeak latencies are concerned, SVCI patients showed a significant prolongation of N1–P3, AD patients had a significant increase of N1–N2, and N1–P3 intervals. When all patients were considered as a single group, correlation of neuropsychological tests scores showed a significant negative relationship between P300 latency and, respectively, Mini Mental Status Examination, auditive and visual span forward. In both groups, ERPs latency sensitivity, was low, whilst specificity values were quite high. Conclusions: Our finding suggest that these two dementing diseases have different electrophysiologic features that may be related to their specific underlying pathogenetic mechanism; in particular, we hypothesise that, differently from AD, P300 latency prolongation characterizes the early stage of SVCI. So, this ERPs approach could be helpful to detect early alterations of the attentional/working-memory functions in patients with subcortical ischaemic vascular disease.  相似文献   
6.
目的 研究皮质下缺血性脑血管病(SIVD)在缺血性卒中患者中的发病率、临床特点和危险因素。方法 门诊连续登记的526例发病3个月后的卒中患者入选该研究。对入选患者进行多种神经心理学和功能量表评定以及神经影像学评估,并记录人口学资料、卒中临床特点和血管危险因素。结果 526例患者中,SIVD患者110例(20.9%),其中男性占61.8%,平均年龄66.8±10.5岁。高血压是最常见的危险因素(80.0%),其次是血脂异常和吸烟史,分别为52.7%和40.9%,有57.3%的患者有2个以上的危险因素。32.7%的患者有抑郁障碍。用Lawton FAQ量表评定显示工具性日常生活能力下降的SIVD患者53人(48.0%),用Barthel 指数(BI)测定显示日常生活能力下降者14人(12.8%)。49例(44.5%)有血管性认知功能损害,其中26例(23.6%)符合血管性痴呆标准。结论 缺血性卒中患者中,SIVD约占1/5,SIVD患者认知损害、抑郁、工具性日常生活能力受累较常见,并伴有多种危险因素。  相似文献   
7.
血管性痴呆和血管性认知障碍的临床研究进展   总被引:3,自引:1,他引:2  
冯涛 《中国卒中杂志》2006,1(10):736-740
血管性认知障碍和痴呆是认知障碍和痴呆领域以及脑血管病领域研究方面的交叉点。本文综述了血管性痴呆和认知障碍的定义、诊断标准和药物治疗进展。在诊断方面重点介绍了血管性痴呆各个亚型的临床特点。在治疗方面重点介绍了血管性痴呆和认知障碍的胆碱能递质代谢障碍以及胆碱酯酶抑制剂治疗的进展。  相似文献   
8.
目的 研究血管性认知功能障碍 (VCI)患者的神经心理学、影像学及事件相关电位的特点并探讨其意义。方法 对 78例VCI患者及 4 9名正常人进行中文版简易智能状态检查 (MMSE)量表、头颅CT、事件相关电位检查。结果  (1)VCI组MMSE总分 (2 4 .35± 3.2 8)分 ,与正常组 (2 5 .0 4± 5 .0 3)分比较差异无显著性(P >0 .0 5 ) ;地点定向、时间定向、短程记忆、计算能力、语言表达、言语复述、图形描画 7项亚项的评分均明显低于正常组 (均P <0 .0 5 )。 (2 )VCI患者脑萎缩明显 ,脑梗死灶位于额、颞叶者及多发性梗死患者MMSE评分降低更显著 (均P <0 .0 5 )。 (3)VCI患者P3 0 0 潜伏期与正常组相比显著延长 (P <0 .0 5 ) ,P3 0 0 潜伏期与MMSE评分呈负相关 (r=- 0 .6 1,P <0 0 5 )。结论 MMSE量表中认知功能亚项的测评 ,有利于早期发现VCI患者的认知功能障碍 ,脑萎缩及脑梗死灶的部位和数目与VCI的程度有关 ;P3 0 0 潜伏期的检测对于早期发现VCI患者的认知障碍及其程度有重要价值。  相似文献   
9.
血管性认知功能障碍患者血脂代谢的研究   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
目的研究血管性认知功能障碍(VCI)患者血脂代谢的变化。方法测定206例VCI患者和325例年龄相匹配的正常对照者血清总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三脂(TG)、高密度脂蛋白(HDL)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL)水平。结果VCI组患者血清中TC、TG、HDL、LDL的水平分别为(5.52±1.14)mmol/L、(1.59±0.47)mmol/L、(1.08±0.35)mmol/L、(3.48±0.86)mmol/L,而正常老年人中相应指标分别为(4.97±1.09)mmol/L、(1.28±0.45)mmol/L、(1.12±0.36)mmol/L、(2.96±0.81)mmol/L,其中VCI组TC、LDL、TG均明显高于对照组,差异有显著性(P<0.05),而HDL在两组间比较差异则无显著性(P>0.05)。结论VCI患者存在明显的脂质代谢紊乱,TC、LDL、TG可能对VCI的发病有一定的影响,而HDL与VCI发病可能无关联。  相似文献   
10.
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