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1.
Activity-dependent alteration in synaptic efficacy is referred to as synaptic plasticity and is the believed hallmark of any learning process. Here we employed a recently validated complex maze for spatial training and investigated the impact of repeated and extensive training on basal synaptic transmission of the hippocampal Schaffer collateral-CA1 synaptic connection in vitro. In the present experiments, male CD-1 mice were trained in a complex maze for eight consecutive days five times a day. Subsequently, input-output functions of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) recorded in the CA1 area following stimulation of the Schaffer collateral-commissural fiber pathway were analyzed in acute hippocampal slices. We found a marked right shift of the fEPSP response in trained compared to untrained animals while fiber volley size remained unchanged. The findings provide evidence for a direct implication of homosynaptic hippocampal long-term depression in a spatial learning paradigm.  相似文献   
2.

Objective

The European Association of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry and Psychosomatics (EACLPP) has organized a workgroup to establish consensus on the contents and organization of training in consultation-liaison (C-L) for psychiatric and psychosomatic residents.

Methods

Initially, a survey among experts has been conducted to assess the status quo of training in C-L in different European countries. In several consensus meetings, the workgroup discussed aims, core contents, and organizational issues of standards of training in C-L. Twenty C-L specialists in 14 European countries participated in a Delphi procedure answering a detailed consensus checklist, which included different topics under discussion.

Results

Consensus on the following issues has been obtained: (1) all residents in psychiatry or psychosomatics should be exposed to C-L work as part of their clinical experience; (2) a minimum of 6 months of full-time (or equivalent part-time) rotation to a C-L department should take place on the second part of residency; (3) advanced training should last for at least 12 months; (4) supervision of trainees should be clearly defined and organized; and (5) trainees should acquire knowledge and skills on the following: (a) assessment and management of psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders or situations (e.g., suicide/self-harm, somatization, chronic pain and psychiatric disorders, and abnormal illness behavior in somatically ill patients); (b) crisis intervention and psychotherapy methods appropriate for medically ill patients; (c) psychopharmacology in physically ill patients; (d) communication with severely ill patients and dying patients, as well as with medical staff; (e) promotion of coordination of care for complex patients across several disciplines; and (f) organization of C-L service in relation to general hospital and/or primary care.In addition, the workgroup elaborated recommendations on the form of training and on assessment of competency.

Conclusion

This document is a first step towards establishing recognized training in C-L psychiatry and psychosomatics across the European Union.  相似文献   
3.
The use of activity-dependent interventions has shown some success in promoting recovery of upper limb function in chronic stroke patients. This study compared the neurophysiological and behavioural changes associated with two such rehabilitation protocols: unilateral and bilateral movement training. Twelve chronic stroke patients were randomly assigned to the two training protocols involving six daily practice sessions. Each session consisted of 50 trials of a dowel placement task performed either with both impaired and unimpaired arm moving synchronously (bilateral training group) or with only the impaired arm moving (unilateral training). Kinematic measurements of upper limb movements were made in four unilateral test trials performed prior to and following each practice session. Functional assessments of the impaired upper limb and neurophysiological assessments, using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), of the affected and non-affected cortical hemispheres were made prior to and following the intervention sessions. Individuals receiving bilateral training showed a reduction in movement time of the impaired limb and increased upper limb functional ability compared to individuals receiving unilateral training. In some patients changes to upper limb function were associated with changes to the cortical representation of a target muscle in the non-affected hemisphere. Overall, these findings suggest that a short-term bilateral training intervention may be effective in facilitating upper limb motor function in chronic stroke patients.  相似文献   
4.
Previous behavioural research has shown that spatial attention is bilaterally represented in musicians, possibly reflecting more equal neural development between the hemispheres. We investigated this theory electrophysiologically with another measure that has shown asymmetry, interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT). Sixteen right-handed musicians and 16 matched non-musicians responded to stimuli presented to the left and right visual fields while 128-channel EEG was recorded. IHTT was calculated by comparing the latencies of occipital N1 components between hemispheres. Non-musicians showed significantly faster IHTT in the right-to-left direction than in the left-to-right direction and a shorter N1 latency in the left than in the right hemisphere. In contrast, the musician group showed no directional difference between hemispheres in IHTT, and no hemispheric difference in latency. These results indicate that musicians have more bilateral neural connectivity than non-musicians, reflected in an unusual lack of asymmetry. It is suggested that plastic developmental changes caused by extended musical training in childhood result in equally efficient connections to both hemispheres.  相似文献   
5.
6.
Porro CA  Facchin P  Fusi S  Dri G  Fadiga L 《Neuropsychologia》2007,45(13):3114-3121
We tested here the hypothesis that observing others' actions can facilitate basic aspects of motor performance, such as force production, even if subjects are not required to immediately reproduce the observed actions and if they are not aware that observation can form the basis for procedural training. To this end, we compared in healthy volunteers the effects of repeated actual execution (MOV) or observation (OBS) of a simple intransitive movement (abduction of the right index and middle fingers). In a first experiment, we found that both actual and observational training significantly increased the finger abduction force of both hands. In the MOV group, force increases over pre-training values were significantly higher in the trained than in the untrained hand (50% versus 33%), whereas they were similar for the two hands in the OBS group (32% versus 30%). No force change was found in the control, untrained group. In a second experiment, we found that both training conditions significantly increased the isometric force exerted during right index finger abduction, whereas no post-training change in isometric force was found during abduction of the right little finger. Actual performance, imagination and, to a lower extent, observation of fingers movement enhanced the excitability of the corticospinal system targeting the first dorsal interosseus muscle, as tested by transcranial magnetic stimulation; pre- and post-training effects were of similar magnitude. These results show a powerful, specific role of action observation in motor training, likely exerted through premotor areas, which may prove useful in physiological and rehabilitative conditions.  相似文献   
7.
RATIONALE: This study examines the effect of Skill Training In Affect Regulation (STAIR) on a cohort of 24 inpatients with Schizophrenia with histories of significant trauma and Complex PTSD. METHOD: Using a model of Trauma Healing proposed by the NYS Office of Mental Health, 24 patients underwent 12 weeks of group-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Treatment modalities focused on trust, safety, affect-regulation, identification of trauma triggers, and disrupting abuse-driven behaviors. A comparison group of patients received 12 weeks of supportive psychotherapy by therapists unfamiliar with Trauma Management. Treatment outcome was compared using the Modified Impact of Events, and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scales. RESULTS: Following completion of 12 weeks of therapy, only those patients undergoing therapy in Trauma Recovery showed improvement on items such as tension, excitement, hostility, suspiciousness, and anger-control. CONCLUSION: These findings are an encouraging first step in trauma recovery of patients with chronic mental illness, histories of prolonged trauma, and Complex PTSD.  相似文献   
8.
The effectiveness of a social skills training group for adolescents with Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism (AS/HFA) was evaluated. Parents of six groups of adolescents (n = 46, 61% male, mean age 14.6) completed questionnaires immediately before and after the 12-week group. Parents and adolescents were surveyed regarding their experience with the group. Significant pre- to post-treatment gains were found on measures of both social competence and problem behaviors associated with AS/HFA. Effect sizes ranged from .34 to .72. Adolescents reported more perceived skill improvements than did parents. Parent-reported improvement suggests that social skills learned in group sessions generalize to settings outside the treatment group. Larger, controlled studies of social skills training groups would be valuable.  相似文献   
9.
Trial interventions in DIR and ABA with twin brothers with autism were offered to help the parents choose one of the programs for their sons. Pre- and post-test scores on the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales (CSBS) revealed a slight gain in the composite score of the ABA child and a slight loss in the score of the DIR child. Contrasted gains and losses occurred in six of the seven CSBS clusters. Results from this pilot research are discussed with additional communication and behavior data from the intervention period. Careful interpretation of CSBS outcomes in counseling parents and graduate students is strongly advised. Continued research in comparative outcomes for intervention programs is strongly encouraged.  相似文献   
10.
A longitudinal study was conducted on 34 children with autism to evaluate the usefulness of the Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH) program for Chinese pre-school children in Hong Kong. Eighteen children received full-time center-based TEACCH program training. The control group included 16 children who received different types of individualized or group training but not TEACCH program training. Instruments validated in Hong Kong were used to assess the children’s cognitive, social adaptive functioning and developmental abilities before and during the training at 6-month intervals for 12 months. Children in the experimental group showed better outcomes at posttest. They also showed progress in different developmental domains over time. The study provided initial support for the effectiveness of using the TEACCH program with Chinese children.  相似文献   
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