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1.
Zhao M  Suh M  Ma H  Perry C  Geneslaw A  Schwartz TH 《Epilepsia》2007,48(11):2059-2067
PURPOSE: Optical recording of intrinsic signals provides the highest combined spatial and temporal resolution with broad spatial sampling for measuring cerebral blood volume (CBV) and hemoglobin oxygenation in cerebral cortex. Few opportunities arise to apply this laboratory method to record spontaneous seizures in unanesthetized human brain during neurosurgery. We report such a rare opportunity in a man with recurrent focal epilepsy arising from a cavernous malformation. METHODS: We recorded intrinsic optical signals (IOS) from human cortex intraoperatively during spontaneous seizures arising from brain surrounding a small cavernous malformation in an awake patient using only local anesthesia with simultaneous electrocorticography. The IOS was recorded at two wavelengths, one an isosbestic point for hemoglobin to measure CBV (570 nm) and the other at a wavelength more sensitive to deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hbr) (610 nm). A modified Beer-Lambert calculation was used on two separate but similar seizures to approximate changes in Hbr, CBV as well as oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO(2)). RESULTS: Electrographically recorded seizures (n = 3) elicited a focal increase in both Hbr and CBV that lasted for the duration of the seizure, indicating that perfusion was inadequate to meet metabolic demand. Remarkably, these hemodynamic changes preceded the onset of the seizures by approximately 20 s and occurred focally over the known location of the lesion and the seizure onsets. DISCUSSION: These findings demonstrate that the hemoglobin becomes deoxygenated in spite of large increase in CBV during spontaneous human focal seizures and that optically recorded hemodynamic events can be used both to predict and localize human focal epilepsy. Such data may someday be useful to assist in the presurgical evaluation of patients considered for epilepsy surgery and to predict the timing and location of seizure onsets.  相似文献   
2.
INTRODUCTION: Assessment of pretest probability should be the initial step in investigation of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). In teaching hospitals physicians in training are often the first physicians to evaluate patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of pretest probability assessment of PE by physicians in training using the Wells clinical model and to assess the safety of a diagnostic strategy including pretest probability assessment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 291 consecutive outpatients with clinical suspicion of PE were categorized as having a low, moderate or high pretest probability of PE by physicians in training who could take supervising physicians' advice when they deemed necessary. Then, patients were managed according to a sequential diagnostic algorithm including D-dimer testing, lung scan, leg compression ultrasonography and helical computed tomography. Patients in whom PE was deemed absent were followed up for 3 months. RESULTS: 34 patients (18%) had PE. Prevalence of PE in the low, moderate and high pretest probability groups categorized by physicians in training alone was 3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1% to 9%), 31% (95% CI: 22% to 42%) and 100% (95% CI: 61% to 100%) respectively. One of the 152 untreated patients (0.7%, 95% CI: 0.1% to 3.6%) developed a thromboembolic event during the 3-month follow-up period. CONCLUSION: Physicians in training can use the Wells clinical model to determine pretest probability of PE. A diagnostic strategy including the use of this model by physicians in training with access to supervising physicians' advice appears to be safe.  相似文献   
3.
Background The aim of the study was to assess (i) the rate of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), (ii) the amount and time course of renal dysfunction, (iii) the identification of risk factors and calculation of a risk score for CIN in acute stroke patients after CT perfusion (CTP) and CT angiography (CTA). Methods 162 patients were investigated,who had received 140 ml of non-ionic low osmolar contrast agent (300 mg iodine per ml, Ultravist 300?, Schering AG) for CTA and CTP. We assessed electrolytes, creatinine, and creatinine clearance before and up to 7 days after administration of contrast agent. In addition, the risk factors for CIN were recorded and a previously validated risk score for CIN was calculated.We also assessed the amount of crystalloid fluid substitution and newly prescribed drugs. CIN was defined as an increase of the serum creatinine-level of > 0.5 mg/dl or > 25% above baseline within 48 hours after contrast agent administration. Results 154 patients (94 %) received crystalloid fluid substitution (mean 6.1 l) within 48 h after contrast agent administration. During follow-up the creatinine values and the creatinine clearance remained stable while sodium and potassium increased significantly (p < 0.0001) after contrast agent administration. In patients with a pathological creatinine value on admission (n = 40), the creatinine clearance did not decrease significantly (p = 0.18). The risk score for developing a CIN was low in the majority of stroke patients. A manifest CIN occurred in 3 patients (2 %). No patient had to be hemodialysed. Conclusion CIN is a rare complication in acute stroke patients examined by multimodal contrast-based CT due to the low prevalence of risk factors associated with CIN. In conjunction with appropriate fluid substitution, low osmolar nonionic contrast agents seem to be safe in clinical routine.  相似文献   
4.
In vivo hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release was characterised for the first time in a New World primate. A nonterminal and repeatable push-pull perfusion (PPP) technique reliably measured GnRH in conscious common marmoset monkeys. Nineteen adult females (n = 8 ovary-intact in the mid-follicular phase; n = 11 ovariectomised) were fitted with long-term cranial pedestals, and a push-pull cannula was temporarily placed in unique locations within the pituitary stalk-median eminence (S-ME) 2 days prior to each PPP session. Marmosets underwent 1-3 PPPs (32 PPPs in total) lasting up to 12 h. Plasma cortisol levels were not elevated in these habituated marmosets during PPP, and PPP did not disrupt ovulatory cyclicity or subsequent fertility in ovary-intact females. GnRH displayed an organised pattern of release, with pulses occurring every 50.0 +/- 2.6 min and lasting 25.4 +/- 1.3 min. GnRH pulse frequency was consistent within individual marmosets across multiple PPPs. GnRH mean concentration, baseline concentration and pulse amplitude varied predictably with anatomical location of the cannula tip within the S-ME. GnRH release increased characteristically in response to a norepinephrine infusion and decreased abruptly during the evening transition to lights off. Ovary-intact (mid-follicular phase) and ovariectomised marmosets did not differ significantly on any parameter of GnRH release. Overall, these results indicate that PPP can be used to reliably assess in vivo GnRH release in marmosets and will be a useful tool for future studies of reproductive neuroendocrinology in this small primate.  相似文献   
5.
Introduction  Aim of this randomized prospective clinical trial is to compare two methods of antipyretics and evaluate their efficacy in controlling fever during the acute phase of brain damage. Methods  Twenty-two febrile comatose patients: 12 severe traumatic brain injury and 10 subarachnoid hemorrhage divided in 2 groups: Diclofenac low-dose infusion (10 patients) and extemporaneous boluses of NSAIDs (CTRL, 12 patients). The primary outcome measure was length of time with temperature >38°C. Secondary outcome measures were: 1) to assess the effects of each antipyretic strategy on intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate; 2) to monitor adverse effects of each antipyretic strategy. The baseline characteristics in the two treatment groups were similar. Results  Primary findings: percentage of time per patient with temperature >38°C was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) in the DCF group, 4% (0–22%), vs. 34% (8–56%) in CTRL group. In addition, mean T°, max T° were lower in DCF than in CTRL (P < 0.05). Secondary findings: CPP and MAP were significantly higher in DCF group (P < 0.05) while ICP was not different (NS). However, if ICP pre randomization was < 25 mmHg, CTRL suffered a worst ICP (24 ± 11 vs. 16 ± 7 P = 0.01), MAP (89 ± 10 vs. 104 ± 10 P = 0.01) and CPP (75 ± 10 vs. 94 ± 17 P = 0.01) compared to DCF. No differences between the two treatment were recorded when ICP ≥ 25 mmHg before randomization. There was no gastrointestinal or intracranial bleeding. Conclusions  Low dose DCF infusion is a potential useful strategy for a successful control temperature better than intermittent NSAIDs dosing, minimizing potentially brain-damaging effects of fever.  相似文献   
6.
OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is characterized by abnormal elevation of intracranial pressure without any underlying etiologic factor. Papilledema is the major clinical finding whereas neuroradiological imaging findings are almost always normal. The aim of this preliminary study was to determine if diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging in patients with IIH might be beneficial in the management of the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospectively, we evaluated standard magnetic resonance, magnetic resonance angiographies and venographies, diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance findings of 16 patients with IIH and of 16 age-, sex-, and weight-matched normal individuals as a control group. Patients with IIH underwent a detailed neuroophthalmologic examination and lumbar puncture for evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed with 1.5 T equipment. RESULTS: On physical examination, all patients had characteristic papilledema, varying degrees of headache, blurred vision and tinnitus. Cerebrospinal fluid pressure was higher than 250 mm H2O in all patients. A statistically significant decrease in cerebral blood flow in six patients, whereas insignificant increase in two were detected. Cerebral blood volume values were almost similar to normal control group's values. Significant mean transit time prolongation was found in six patients as well. CONCLUSIONS: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a clinical syndrome which requires prompt diagnosis and a thorough evaluation. Treatment is crucial for preventing visual loss and improving associated symptoms. It is also important to detect cerebral perfusion changes, as cerebrovascular complications may be associated. Although our patient group is small for statistical evaluation, it is a preliminary study using perfusion and diffusion magnetic resonance which may contribute to IIH management.  相似文献   
7.
The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) contains a unique subpopulation of neurons that express the enzyme 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2). These neurons are mineralocorticoid-sensitive and are activated in association with salt appetite during sodium deficiency. In the absence of sodium deficiency, the HSD2 neurons and sodium appetite are both stimulated by chronic mineralocorticoid administration. After 7 days of treatment with deoxycorticosterone (2 mg/day), an increased number of HSD2 neurons became immunoreactive for the neuronal activity marker c-Fos. When given access to concentrated saline (3% NaCl), deoxycorticosterone-treated rats drank eight times more than vehicle-treated rats. Saline ingestion increased neuronal activation within the medial subdivision of the NTS, but the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive HSD2 neurons was reduced. This finding suggests that the HSD2 neurons are inhibited by signals directly related to saline ingestion, and not simply by the alleviation of sodium deficiency, which does not occur during mineralocorticoid administration.  相似文献   
8.
The potential neuroprotective effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) were tested in an embolic model of focal cerebral ischemia with partially spontaneous reperfusion. Rats (n = 10) were subjected to embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and diffusion weighted MRI (DWI) was performed at baseline, 1, 3, and 6 h after MCAO to determine the ADC viability threshold yielding the lesion volumes that best approximated the 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) infarct volumes at 24 h (experiment 1). For assessment of neuroprotective effects, rats were treated with 100% oxygen at 2.5 atmospheres absolute (ATA, n = 15) or normobaric room air (n = 15) for 60 min beginning 180 min after MCAO (experiment 2). DWI-, perfusion (PWI)- and T2-weighted MRI (T2WI) started within 0.5 h after MCAO and was continued 5 h, 24 h (PWI and T2WI only), and 168 h (T2WI only). Infarct volume was calculated based on TTC-staining at 24 h (experiment 1) or 168 h (experiment 2) post-MCAO. ADC-lesion evolution was maximal between 3 and 6 h. In experiment 2, the relative regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) of both groups showed similar incomplete spontaneous reperfusion in the ischemic core. HBO reduced infarct volume to 145.3 +/- 39.6 mm3 vs. 202.5 +/- 58.3 mm3 (control, P = 0.029). As shown by MRI and TTC, HBO treatment demonstrated significant neuroprotection at 5 h after embolic focal cerebral ischemia that lasted for 168 h.  相似文献   
9.
INTRODUCTION: In a few years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has evolved from a morphology-based examination to one that encompasses metabolism and function. STATE OF ART: MRI is a well-established tool for the initial evaluation of brain tumors, but conventional MR sequences have some limitations. Conventional MRI is unable to distinguish high-grade glioma from metastasis and abscess, to define precisely the histopathological grade of gliomas, to determine exactly the limits of tumor extension, to characterize meningeal tumors. Differentiation of tumor recurrence from treatment-related changes may be difficult with standard MR imaging because the interpretation is essentially based on volume analysis. PERSPECTIVES: 1H Spectroscopy, diffusion and perfusion imaging become possible with the development of MR imagers and can be routinely performed in clinical settings. They give complementary information about tumor metabolism and vascularity and allow a better analysis of post-treatment modifications. Functional and metabolic explorations should be used to characterize brain tumors.  相似文献   
10.
Brain atrophy has consistently been observed in schizophrenia, representing a 'gross' evidence of anatomical abnormalities. Reduced cerebral blood volume (CBV) may accompany brain size decrement in schizophrenia, as suggested by prior small SPECT studies. In this study, we non-invasively investigated the hemisphere CBV in a large sample of patients suffering from schizophrenia with perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI). PWI images were obtained, following intravenous injection of paramagnetic contrast agent (Gadolinium-DTPA), for 54 DSM-IV patients with schizophrenia (mean age+/-SD=39.19+/-12.20 years; 34 males, 20 females) and 24 normal controls (mean age+/-SD=44.63+/-10.43 years; 9 males, 15 females) with a 1.5T Siemens magnet using an echo-planar sequence (TR=2160 ms, TE=47 ms, slice thickness=5mm). The contrast of enhancement (CE), a semi-quantitative parameter inversely estimating the CBV, were calculated pixel by pixel as the ratio of the maximum signal intensity drop during the passage of contrast agent (Sm) by the baseline pre-bolus signal intensity (So) (CE=Sm/Sox100) for right and left hemisphere on two axial images. Specifically, higher CE values correspond to lower CBV and viceversa Compared to normal controls, patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher bilateral hemisphere CE values (p=0.02) and inverse CE laterality index (p=0.02). This study showed abnormally reduced and inverse hemisphere CBV in a large population of patients with schizophrenia. Hypothetically, chronic low CBV may sustain neural hypoactivation and concomitant increase of free radicals, ultimately resulting in neuronal loss and cognitive impairments. Thus, altered intracranial hemodynamics may accompany brain atrophy and cognitive deficits, being a crucial factor in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.  相似文献   
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