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1.
In order to recognize behavioral patterns in children and adolescents at risk for developing bipolar disorder, this study examined Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) profiles of bipolar offspring both with (BD group) and without (“at-risk” or AR group) bipolar disorder themselves. The BD youth had three CBCL subscale T scores ≥70 (attention problems, delinquent behavior, and aggression) and scored significantly higher than healthy comparison youth on all CBCL subscales. AR youth did not have any T scores ≥70; however, they scored higher than healthy comparisons in the anxiety/depression, attention problems, aggression, and withdrawal subscales. AR and BD youth differed significantly on all scales except somatic complaints and anxiety/depression.  相似文献   
2.
A recent focus of research and clinical practice has been on the issue of abuse of parents by their children (parent abuse). This paper reviews the literature on this phenomenon. While parent abuse falls under the umbrella of family violence, it appears to be qualitatively different from other forms of intra-family abuse. Research has primarily focused on prevalence rates and the characteristics of perpetrators and victims. While various factors such as gender, age, emotional attachment to parents, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, family stress and parenting style and structure have been associated with parent abuse, findings are equivocal. Etiological models are general and untested, and treatment approaches lack empirical support. It is concluded that more rigorous and extensive research is required in order to provide a deeper understanding of this complex issue, and to inform treatment approaches.  相似文献   
3.
Archival data from a survey of parent observations was used to determine the prevalence of social and behavioral problems in children with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). Parent observations were surveyed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for 61 children with ACC who were selected from the archive based on criteria of motor development suggesting a relatively high general level of functioning. Younger children with ACC (ages 2–5) were rated as primarily having problems with sleep. Older children with ACC (ages 6–11) manifested problems in attention, social function, thought, and somatic complaints. The older children with ACC were also compared to CBCL data from 52 children with autism who were selected from a previous study. Children with ACC were generally less impaired than children with autism on nearly all scales, with significantly less severe problems in the areas of attention, anxiety/depression, social function, and unusual thoughts. A further questionnaire related to diagnostic criteria for autism indicated that some children with ACC had traits that are among those that contribute to the diagnosis of autism within the domains of social interaction and social communication, but fewer who manifest repetitive and restricted behaviors.  相似文献   
4.
The attributions made by Chinese immigrant (n = 28) and Euro-Canadian (n = 27) mothers of 5- to 9-year-old boys regarding the causes of child prosocial and problem behaviors exhibited by children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were investigated. Mothers’ attributions were elicited using audio-taped scenarios of child behavior. In one-half of the scenarios, the child was described as having ADHD. All mothers attributed less responsibility to the child or to the parent for problem behaviors when the child was described as having ADHD than when the child was described as not having a behavior disorder. Mothers also attributed prosocial child behaviors and the behavior of children without ADHD more to parental factors. In comparison to Euro-Canadian mothers, Chinese immigrant mothers saw children as less responsible for prosocial behavior. Mothers also completed a measure of beliefs about ADHD. Although there were some subtle cultural differences in these beliefs, mothers from both cultural groups endorsed generally accurate beliefs about ADHD. Implications for understanding the cultural uniqueness and similarities of maternal attitudes regarding child behavior and ADHD are discussed.  相似文献   
5.
This study investigated how discrepancies between adolescents' and parents' endorsement of parental control contribute to adolescent depressive symptoms. Family conflict was hypothesized to mediate the link between parent-adolescent discrepancies and depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 166 pairs of Chinese American adolescents and their parents. The results indicated that, as predicted, greater discrepancies between adolescents and their parents on parental control related to greater adolescent depressive symptoms. Furthermore, adolescent's perceived degree of family conflict partially mediated this relation. Both parents and adolescents are changing and adapting to their cultural contexts; some in synchrony and some not. Identifying areas where parents and adolescents diverge concerning values, behaviors, and beliefs, is an important avenue to understanding Chinese American adolescents' mental health.  相似文献   
6.
This paper investigates how the learning environments and family dynamics differ if households have a child with a disability or a parent with a disability. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, results indicate that children with disabilities experience similar learning environments as other children, but have somewhat weaker relationships with their parents. In two-parent families, maternal disability lowers parents' school involvement and is associated with a less enriching home environment. Paternal disability reduces maternal monitoring and positive family activities possibly because mothers divert care-giving resources from their children to their male partners. Children in mother-headed households experience learning environments and family dynamics that are similar regardless of their own disability status or that of their mothers, but these outcomes are markedly inferior to those of children growing up in two-parent households. Future research on adolescent development should consider the disability status of children and parents, with particular attention to patterns of gendered care-giving in American families.  相似文献   
7.
Joint attention, a foundational nonverbal social-communicative milestone that fails to develop naturally in autism, was promoted for three toddlers with early-identified autism through a parent-mediated, developmentally grounded, researcher-guided intervention model. A multiple baseline design compared child performance across four phases of intervention: focusing on faces, turn-taking, responding to joint attention, and initiating joint attention. All toddlers improved performance and two showed repeated engagement in joint attention, supporting the effectiveness of developmentally appropriate methods that build on the parent–child relationship. A complementary qualitative analysis explored family challenges, parent resilience, and variables that may have influenced outcomes. Intervention models appropriate for toddlers with autism are needed as improved early identification efforts bring younger children into early intervention services.  相似文献   
8.
The First Year Inventory (FYI) is a parent questionnaire designed to assess behaviors in 12-month-olds that suggest risk for an eventual diagnosis of autism. We examined the construct validity of the FYI by comparing retrospective responses of parents of preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; n = 38), other developmental disabilities (DD; n = 15), and typical development (TD; n = 40). Children with ASD were rated at significantly higher risk on the FYI than children with DD or TD. The DD group was at intermediate risk, also significantly higher than the TD group. These retrospective data strengthen the validity of the FYI and have implications for refining the FYI to improve its utility for prospective screening of 12-month-olds.  相似文献   
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10.
Trial interventions in DIR and ABA with twin brothers with autism were offered to help the parents choose one of the programs for their sons. Pre- and post-test scores on the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales (CSBS) revealed a slight gain in the composite score of the ABA child and a slight loss in the score of the DIR child. Contrasted gains and losses occurred in six of the seven CSBS clusters. Results from this pilot research are discussed with additional communication and behavior data from the intervention period. Careful interpretation of CSBS outcomes in counseling parents and graduate students is strongly advised. Continued research in comparative outcomes for intervention programs is strongly encouraged.  相似文献   
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