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1.
INTRODUCTION: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common helminthic infection of the central nervous system. It is a major public health problem in developing countries, however, rarely reported in Saudi Arabia. As far as our knowledge, this is the first case report of NCC in Saudi Arabia. An increasing number of immigrants from endemic areas is the cause. CASE REPORTS: Here, we report three interesting cases of NCC in three adult females with very unusual clinical presentation. These include: (case 1) progressive spasticity of the four limbs with severe pseudobulbar manifestations, precipitancy of micturition, cognitive impairment and no eye involvement; (case 2) dystonic movement of right upper and lower limbs together with weight gain, lethargy, mental dullness and goitre; and (case 3) depressive manifestations together with disturbance of writing, mild deep sensory loss, limb-kinetic apraxia, lack of coordination and dystonia of the right upper limb. The clinical details and possible mechanisms for the uncommon presentations are discussed. CONCLUSION: NCC should be kept in mind and raise a high level of suspicion for unusual neurological manifestations in Saudian patients particularly as there has been increasing percentage of immigration from endemic areas during the last few years.  相似文献   
2.
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of epilepsy and the role of neurocysticercosis in the occurrence of epilepsy in Atahualpa. METHODS: We used a door-to-door survey to detect subjects with epileptic seizures, to collect a blood sample for determination of anticysticercal antibodies, and to evaluate social characteristics of the population, including household pig ownership. Neurologists examined suspected cases and a sample of negative individuals. Then patients with epilepsy, as well as age- and sex-matched controls, underwent a head computed tomography (CT) and a scalp EEG. RESULTS: The questionnaire was answered by 2,415 of 2,548 residents of Atahualpa, and cysticercosis serology was performed in 1,687 consenting individuals. Cysticercosis seroprevalence was 145 (8.6%) per 1,686). Neurologic examination confirmed 24 patients with epilepsy (crude prevalence, 9.9 per 1,000 population, and 10.8 per 1,000 when adjusted to the United States population). After adjustment by age, sex, and pig raising, positive serology was strongly associated with epilepsy (odds ratio (OR), 4.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.6-11.2). CT findings compatible with neurocysticercosis were found in five patients with epilepsy and also were more frequent than in controls, although this did not reach statistical significance (five of 19 vs. one of 19; p = 0.125, McNemar's test). Besides these five cases, three other patients with epilepsy had positive serology (one with a normal CT and two who did not have a CT). CONCLUSIONS: Neurocysticercosis is associated with one-third of cases of epilepsy in Atahualpa and may be a major contributory factor for the excess fraction of epilepsy seen in this population.  相似文献   
3.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the frequency of neurocysticercosis (NCC) in a well-defined prevalent cohort of epilepsy patients in the rural area of the Cordillera province. METHODS: We carried out a two-phase door-to-door neuroepidemiologic survey in a sample of 10,124 subjects in a rural area of the Cordillera Province, Bolivia, to detect the prevalence of the most common neurologic disorders including epilepsy. A team of health workers administered a standard screening instrument for neurologic diseases; subjects found positive at the screening phase underwent a complete neurologic examination. Epilepsy patients were diagnosed according to the definition proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE, 1993). Epilepsy patients identified this way underwent electroencephalographic recording, computed tomography (CT) scan, and serologic evaluation to detect antibodies against Taenia solium by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot. RESULTS: At the end of the survey, we detected 124 defined prevalent epilepsy patients. On the basis of the classification proposed by the ILAE in 1981, partial seizures were the most common type diagnosed (66 patients, 53.3%). Of the 124 patients, 105 underwent CT scan, and a serum sample was taken to detect antibodies against T. solium in 112 patients; for 97 patients, both neuroradiologic and serologic data were available. Considering radiologic, serologic, and clinical features, of these 124 patients, 34 (27.4%) fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for definitive or probable NCC proposed in 2001. Of these 34 patients 24 (70.6%) had partial seizures. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm a high frequency of NCC among a well-defined prevalent cohort of epilepsy patients.  相似文献   
4.
AIMS: To determine the etiologic role of neurocysticercosis (NC) in a hospital-based sample of epilepsies divided according to International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) epidemiological criteria and number of seizures prior to presentation. METHODS: A sample comprising 1026 consecutive patients with either definite seizures or epilepsy attending a Neurology Outpatient Service was divided into four subgroups: single seizure (n = 314), incident epilepsy (n = 127), prevalent epilepsy (n = 398) and recurrent acute symptomatic seizures (RASS) (n = 175). The etiologic contribution of NC to each of the subgroups was examined with imaging studies. RESULTS: Neurocysticercosis was diagnosed on imaging studies in 34.6% of patients with seizure disorder of any type, 59.2% of those with a single seizure, 23.7% of those with recurrent seizure disorder, 92.0% of those with RASS, none of cases of incident epilepsy and 2.0% with prevalent epilepsy. A diagnosis of NC was significantly associated with single seizures (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Imaging abnormalities consistent with NC are frequently noted in persons presenting with a single seizure in neurologic care in NC-endemic countries like India. The probability of diagnosing NC diminishes with increasing numbers of seizures. Among samples of individuals with recurrent-unprovoked seizures, it is rare for imaging to demonstrate lesions of NC.  相似文献   
5.
PURPOSE: Determination of epilepsy etiology in population-based studies is difficult because of the high cost of diagnostic tests. However, cost-effectiveness may be proven if preventive public-health strategies can be established from the test results. We report an epilepsy population-based study using clinical and laboratory techniques. METHODS: A medical team administered an epilepsy survey to 88% of the residents by census in the rural county of Salamá, Honduras. Ninety of 100 participants identified with active epilepsy underwent a neurologic examination, video-electroencephalography (video-EEG), brain computed tomography (CT) scan, and serum enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) for cysticercosis. Final diagnoses were based on the International League Against Epilepsy classifications for seizures and epilepsy syndromes. Combined epidemiologic, clinical, video-EEG, neuroimaging, and serum EITB assays were used for the diagnosis of epilepsy etiologies. RESULTS: Among 6,473 residents surveyed, 151 persons with epilepsy (prevalence rate, 23.3/1,000) were identified, 100 of whom had active epilepsy (15.4/1,000) on the prevalence day. Incidence was determined to be 92.7/100,000. Partial seizures with or without secondary generalization were common (92.2%). Symptomatic epilepsy (62%) was primarily due to neurocysticercosis (37%), perinatal brain damage (8%), post-traumatic (3%), and poststroke (2%). Eight percent were idiopathic, and 30% were cryptogenic (unknown cause). CONCLUSIONS: Symptomatic epilepsies primarily explained the high prevalence and incidence of epilepsy in Salamá. Integration of video-EEG and brain CT scan with clinical-epidemiologic evaluation was critical for determination of epilepsy etiology. Establishment of specific programs for continuation of epidemiologic surveillance, education, intervention, and long-term follow-up will benefit the Salamá region.  相似文献   
6.
Abstract. Objective: To evaluate the relevance of exposure and host biological factors in the heterogeneity of the clinical, radiological and inflammatory picture of neurocysticercosis (NCC). Methods: 105 Mexican symptomatic NCC patients confirmed by imaging were studied before they received any specific treatment. The relationships studied were those between a) the patients characteristics (gender, age and level of exposure), b) the type of clinical picture and c) the radiological and inflammatory characteristics of the disease (number, aspect, localization of the parasites, and CSF leukocytecounts). Results: Results Seizures were the most frequent symptom and multiple subarachnoid cysticerci the most frequent localization. Symptomatology related to the developmental stage, number and localization of the parasites as well as the CSF leukocyte-counts. The total number of cysticercal lesions and of vesicular cysticerci increased with age,whereas the number of colloidal cysticerci decreased. CSF leukocyte-counts were higher in women than in men. Levels of exposure did not correlate with the clinical and radiological pictures. Conclusions: The variability found in the number, stage, localization and inflammation in the parasite lesions is strongly associated with the heterogeneity of NCC symptoms. The increased number of vesicular cysticerci and the decreased number of degenerating cysticerci with aging, as well as the prominence of inflammation in women suggest that immuno-endocrinological factors may play a role in susceptibility and pathogenesis. The data also show that with increasing age and exposure there is no increment in severity, a suggestion that there might be ways of regulating pathogenicity.  相似文献   
7.
Introduction An unusual case of positive immunological testing for cysticercosis in the cystic fluid obtained from an anaplastic oligoastrocytoma is presented.Case report A 15-year-old boy was admitted with multiple brain lesions. The biggest was a cyst with a mural node and neurocysticercosis was suspected. In order to relieve intracranial pressure, the cyst was punctured and the immunological testing for cysticercosis was positive, reinforcing the clinical suspicion and leading to a clinical trial with albendazole and steroids. As the patient deteriorated the cystic lesion was removed and the diagnosis of anaplastic oligoastrocytoma was established. A second lesion was eventually approached and the histopathological diagnosis of both specimens concurred.Discussion Although some authors believe that chronic inflammatory changes following neurocysticercosis could induce the formation of brain tumors, this association may be a mere coincidence. In our case no clinical evidence of a prior infestation by Cysticercus was found. In fact, an exhaustive examination of the specimens did not reveal any areas of inflammatory reaction. We believe that the similarity of the glioma and cysticercosis antigens may be the cause of the positive reactions in the cystic fluid.  相似文献   
8.
Neuron-specific enolase in patients with neurocysticercosis   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis (NC) is the most frequent parasitic disease of the human nervous system. Its clinical manifestations are varied and depend on the number and location of cysts, as well as the host immune response. Symptoms in NC usually occur when cysts enter into a degenerative phase associated with perilesional inflammation. We speculate that neuron-specific enolase (NSE)--a marker of neuronal injury--could be elevated in patients with degenerating cysts comparing to those with viable cysts. METHODS: We examined serum NSE (sNSE) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) NSE (cNSE) levels in 25 patients with NC: 14 patients with degenerative cysts (D), 8 patients with viable cysts (V) and 3 patients with inactive cysts. Samples of eight normal controls (C) were also obtained. Determination of albumin was performed in serum and CSF samples, and the CSF/serum albumin ratio (albumin quotient, Q(alb)) was used to estimate the blood-brain barrier permeability. RESULTS: All patients, with the exception of one case, had five or less cysts. Comparisons between V, D and C groups did not demonstrate significant differences of cNSE, Q(alb) and sNSE levels. Further, there were no significant differences of cNSE and sNSE levels between patients with or without intracranial hypertension (ICH). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the inflammatory response associated with a relatively small number of degenerating cysts does not provoke significant neuronal damage. Further studies considering patients with a larger number of cysts will be required to assess if there is evidence of neuronal damage in such more severe cases.  相似文献   
9.
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether serum S100B levels could reflect a glial response in patients with epilepsy secondary to neurocysticercosis (NCC) and with idiopathic epilepsy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Serum S100B levels were measured using an immunoluminometric assay in 20 patients with focal epilepsy related to chronic NCC (NCC group), and 19 patients with focal epilepsy (EPI group), matched by epidemiological and clinical data. Epileptic patients were compared with 20 healthy controls (CON group) matched by age and sex. RESULTS: No difference was observed in S100B levels among NCC, EPI and CON groups (P>0.39). Serum S100B levels were not affected by antiepileptic drugs, frequency and type of seizures. Preliminarily, significantly higher levels of S100B were observed in patients with bilateral electroencephalographic (EEG) findings than in patients with unilateral and normal EEG findings (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Serum S100B is normal in patients with focal epilepsy related or not to chronic NCC.  相似文献   
10.
Mall RK  Agarwal A  Garg RK  Kar AM  Shukla R 《Epilepsia》2003,44(11):1397-1401
PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of a short course of oral corticosteroids in Indian patients with solitary cysticercus granuloma with seizures. METHODS: In this open-label, randomized, prospective follow-up study, 97 patients with new-onset seizures and a single enhancing computed tomography (CT)-detected lesion of cysticercosis were randomly divided in two groups to receive either antiepileptic monotherapy alone (n = 48) or antiepileptic monotherapy with prednisolone (n = 49). The patients in the latter group received prednisolone, 1 mg/kg/day for 10 days, followed by tapering over next 4 days. The patients were followed up for 6 months. Repeated CT scans were performed after 1 and 6 months. RESULTS: The majority of patients were young. Simple partial seizure, with or without secondary generalization, was the commonest seizure type encountered. Follow-up CT scans at 1 and 6 months demonstrated a significantly better response for prednisolone as far as complete resolution of CT lesion was concerned. Kaplan-Meier analysis suggested significantly less probability of seizure recurrence for prednisolone-treated patients. At 6 months, Kaplan-Meier estimated risk of seizure after first seizure was 2% in prednisolone-treated patients in comparison to 13% for those who were not given prednisolone. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term prednisolone therapy helps in rapid resolution of solitary cysticercus granuloma in Indian patients with new-onset seizures. Resolution of lesions is associated with improved seizure-related prognosis.  相似文献   
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