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1.
Abnormal accumulation of Aβ and tau in senile plaques (SP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) is a key event in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we show that T668-phosphorylated cytoplasmic domain of APP (pT668-ACD) accumulates Aβ and tau in AD and its transgenic models. Anti-pT668 immunostaining of AD brain sections with hydrated autoclave enhancement identified SP neurites and NFTs in which pT668-ACD colocalizes with tau. We produced and examined transgenic (Tg) mice that overexpress human APP695, harboring the double Swedish/London mutation, and develop age-dependently Aβ plaques in the brain. All Aβ plaques contain co-accumulations of pT668-ACD, but co-accumulation of tau appears in only a fraction of Aβ plaques in older animals. We also examined the established tau Tg mice that overexpress the smallest human brain tau isoform and develop neuronal accumulations of tau in older animals. Examination of the old tau Tg mice showed that neuronal cells affected by tau accumulation induce co-accumulation of pT668-ACD. We speculate that in AD brains, extracellular Aβ deposition is accompanied by intracellular accumulation of pT668-ACD, followed by tau accumulation in the SP with dystrophic neurites and that neuronal cells affected by tau accumulation induce co-accumulation of pT668-ACD in NFTs. Thus, pT668-ACD is likely to mediate pathological interaction between Aβ and tau.  相似文献   
2.
Summary Although many studies have been carried out to verify the involvement of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) in dystrophia myotonica (DM1) patients, the results remain controversial. The generation of DM1 transgenic mice displaying the human DM1 phenotype provides a useful tool to investigate the type and incidence of structural abnormalities in the PNS. In the present study, the morphological and morphometric analysis of semi-thin sections of sciatic and sural nerves, lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and lumbar spinal cords revealed that in DM1 transgenic mice carrying 300 CTG repeats, there is no change in the number and diameter of myelinated axons compared to wild type. Only a non-significant reduction in the percentage of thin myelinated axons was detected in electron micrographs of ultra-thin sciatic nerve sections. Analysis of the number of neurons did not reveal a loss in number of either sensory neurons in the lumbar DRG or motor neurons in the lumbar spinal cord in these DM1 mice. Furthermore, in hind limb muscle sections, stained with a neurofilament antibody and α-bungarotoxin, the intramuscular axon arborization appeared normal in DM1 mice and undistinguishable from that in wild-type mice. Moreover, in DM1 mice, there was no irregularity in the structure or an increase in the endplate area. Also statistical analysis did not show an increase in endplate density or in the concentration of acetylcholine receptors. Altogether, these results suggest that 300 CTG repeats are not sufficient to induce axonopathy, demyelination or neuronopathies in this transgenic mouse model.  相似文献   
3.
PURPOSE: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a disorder of phenylalanine (Phe) metabolism that frequently results in epilepsy if a low Phe diet was not implemented at birth. The mechanisms by which Phe affects the brain are poorly understood. METHODS: Audiogenic seizures (AGS) were studied in female homozygous Pah(enu2) BTBR (PKU) mice. RESULTS: Adult PKU mice, 18-20 weeks of age, in contrast to wild-type and heterozygous counterparts, exhibited a full range of AGS. Younger PKU mice, 5-7 weeks of age, had higher serum Phe levels (2.22 +/- 0.20 mM) in comparison with the adult animals (1.72 +/- 0.05 mM) and were not susceptible to AGS. Among adult mice, animals susceptible to AGS had significantly lower serum Phe levels (1.62 +/- 0.06 mM) in comparison with those resistant to AGS (1.86 +/- 0.07 mM). Susceptibility to AGS tended to increase in the afternoon when serum Phe concentration decreased in comparison to evening and morning. Normalization of serum Phe level by instituting a low Phe diet generally prevented susceptibility to AGS within 12 h. Although return to a standard diet raised Phe levels to hyperphenylalaninemic within 12 h in animals treated with a low Phe diet for 2 weeks, more than 7 weeks were needed for a complete resumption of AGS. CONCLUSIONS: Transient decrease in Phe levels within hyperphenylalaninemic range may be a necessary condition for PKU-related seizures to occur. A low Phe diet prevents susceptibility to seizures, which can resume with the significant delay after termination of dietary treatment.  相似文献   
4.
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent survival factor for motoneurons (MNs), and is considered a potential agent for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other MN diseases. The effectiveness of GDNF may depend significantly upon its route of delivery to MNs. In this study we tested the neuroprotective effects of target-derived and centrally derived GDNF in the G93A-SOD1 mouse model of ALS using a transgenic approach. We found that overexpression of GDNF in the skeletal muscle (Myo-GDNF mice) significantly delayed the onset of disease and increased the life span of G93A-SOD1 mice by 17 days. The duration of disease also increased by 8.5 days, indicating that GDNF slowed down the progression of disease. Locomotor performance in Myo-GDNF/G93A-SOD1 mice was also significantly improved. The behavioral improvement correlated well with anatomical and histological data. We demonstrated that muscle-derived GDNF resulted in increased survival of spinal MNs, and twice as many MNs survived in end-stage double transgenic mice compared to end-stage G93A-SOD1 mice. Muscle-derived GDNF also had profound effects on muscle innervation and axonal degeneration. Significantly higher numbers of completely or partially innervated NMJs and large caliber myelinated axons were found in double transgenic mice. In contrast, we demonstrated that overexpression of GDNF in astrocytes in the CNS (GFAP-GDNF mice) failed to demonstrate any neuroprotective effects in G93A-SOD1 mice both on behavioral and histological levels. These data indicate that retrograde transport and signaling of GDNF is more physiological and effective for ALS treatment than anterogradely transported GDNF.  相似文献   
5.
The EAAT4 glutamate transporter helps regulate excitatory neurotransmission and prevents glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity in the cerebellum. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization have previously defined a cerebellar cell population expressing this protein. These methods, however, are not well suited for evaluating the dynamic regulation of the transporter and its gene-especially in living tissues. To better study EAAT4 expression and regulation, we generated bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) promoter eGFP reporter transgenic mice. Histological analysis of the transgenic mice revealed that the EAAT4 promoter is active predominantly in Purkinje cells, but can also be modestly detected in other neurons early postnatally. EAAT4 promoter activity was not present in non-neuronal cells. Cerebellar organotypic slice cultures prepared from BAC transgenic mice provided a unique reagent to study transporter and Purkinje cell expression and regulation in living tissue. The correlation of promoter activity to protein expression makes the EAAT4 BAC promoter reporter a valuable tool to study regulation of EAAT4 expression.  相似文献   
6.
The Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse is characterized by an increased audiogenic seizure (AGS) susceptibility and is considered a good animal model for epilepsy and seizures in the human fragile-X (FRAX) syndrome. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the reintroduction of the FMR1 gene is able to revert the AGS susceptibility characterizing Fmr1 KO mice. To this aim, two groups of Fmr1 KO transgenic mice, which have additional copies of the human FMR1 gene (YAC) or FMR1 cDNA (G6) were used. AGS susceptibility of these mice was examined and compared to that of Fmr1 KO, wild type, and wild-type animals in whom the FMR1gene was also introduced (over-expressed). Mice were tested at different ages because AGS susceptibility is age dependent. The intensity of response was scored and the results were analyzed by means of 2-way analysis of variance to evaluate the effects of age and genetic condition. We found that AGS susceptibility rescue is complete in the G6 mice and partial in YAC mice. Our data indicate that the introduction of the human FMR1 gene in Fmr1 KO mice is able to revert the Fmr1 KO epileptic phenotype.  相似文献   
7.
Axonal regeneration is normally limited after injuries to CNS white matter. Infusion of neurotrophins has been successful in promoting regenerative growth through injured white matter but this growth generally fails to extend beyond the infusion site. These observations are consistent with a chemotropic effect of these factors on axonal growth and support the prevailing view that neurotrophin-induced axonal regeneration requires the use of gradients, i.e., gradually increasing neurotrophin levels along the target fiber tract. To examine the potential of global overexpression of neurotrophins to promote, and/or modify the orientation of, regenerative axonal growth within white matter, we grafted nerve growth factor (NGF) responsive neurons into the corpus callosum of transgenic mice overexpressing NGF throughout the CNS under control of the promoter for glial fibrillary acidic protein. One week later, glial fibrillary acidic protein and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan immunoreactivity increased within injured white matter around the grafts. NGF levels were significantly higher in the brains of transgenic compared with non-transgenic mice and further elevated within injury sites compared with the homotypic region of the non-injured side. Although there was minimal outgrowth from neurons grafted into non-transgenic mice, extensive parallel axonal regeneration had occurred within the corpus callosum up to 1.5 mm beyond the astrogliotic scar (the site of maximum NGF expression) in transgenic mice. These results demonstrate that global overexpression of neurotrophins does not override the constraints limiting regenerative growth to parallel orientations and suggest that such factors need not be presented as positive gradients to promote axonal regeneration within white matter.  相似文献   
8.
Progesterone (PROG) shows neuroprotective effects in nervous system diseases. The Wobbler mouse, a model of motoneuron degeneration, suffers a mutation of the Vsp154 gene on chromosome 11 leading to motoneuron vacuolation and astrocytosis of the spinal cord. Previous work has demonstrated beneficial effects of PROG in the Wobbler mouse. As an extension of this work, we now studied steroid effects on neuronal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein, on choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity (IR) and activity in the spinal cord, and on recovery of muscle atrophy. Wobbler mice received implants of PROG pellets (20 mg) at 6 and 10 weeks of age and were killed at 14 weeks. In situ hybridization for BDNF mRNA demonstrated that grain density in large (>600 microm2) and medium size (<600 microm2) ventral horn neurons was decreased in untreated Wobblers, whereas PROG treatment increased BDNF mRNA in both neuronal types. PROG also induced a subcellular redistribution of BDNF protein, which in controls and steroid-naive Wobblers showed a predominant perinuclear and nucleolar location, whereas after PROG treatment, it was detected in cytoplasmic aggregates. ChAT activity was reduced by 55.3% in muscles of untreated Wobbler mice, whereas a significant increment was obtained after PROG treatment. Wobblers also showed reduced number of ChAT positive motoneurons, but this number was restored to normal by PROG. Finally, the pronounced biceps atrophy of steroid-naive Wobbler mice was slightly but significantly increased by PROG-treatment. Considering the important role played by neurotrophins on neuronal function, changes in BDNF might be part of the PROG activated-pathways to provide neuroprotection and re-establish neurotransmission and neuromuscular function in this degeneration model.  相似文献   
9.
Ectopic expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in transgenic mice results in the directional growth of sympathetic and/or sensory fibers. For instance, mice that over-express NGF under the control of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter exhibit robust axonal sprouting into the cerebellum, with no apparent loss of neurons in peripheral ganglia. Given the disagreement in the literature over whether pro-NGF exerts neurotrophic or apoptotic effects, we assessed the relative levels of proNGF and mature NGF in the cerebella of these transgenic mice. Blinded western blot analyses revealed that proNGF was the major species in both transgenic and wild type mice, with very low levels of mature NGF expression. While transgenic mice displayed significantly higher levels of cerebellar proNGF protein as compared to wild type mice, both strains possessed comparable levels of mature NGF. These data reveal that the ectopic expression of NGF in the cerebellum results in an increase in proNGF rather than mature NGF levels. Together with the robust axonal growth and lack of neuronal death in the ganglia in these animals, our results are clearly consistent with proNGF exhibiting neurotrophic activity in vivo.  相似文献   
10.
The pathophysiological processes that cause Parkinson's disease (PD) affect dopamine neurons residing in the substantia nigra with devastating consequences for normal movement. One important gene involved in both familial and sporadic PD is alpha-synuclein. We have generated three strains of alpha-synuclein transgenic mice to study the pathologic consequences of the targeted expression of mutant or wild-type human alpha-synuclein in a model system. We have analyzed gene expression patterns in these mice using high throughput microarrays in anatomical regions implicated in disease (substantia nigra and brainstem). Our study reveals gene dosage-dependent dysregulation of several genes important for the dopaminergic phenotype in mice over-expressing wild-type human alpha-synuclein in the substantia nigra at time points preceding neuronal cell death. Analysis of mutant alpha-synuclein mice at a time point when pathology is advanced reveals several new candidate genes that may play a role in neuronal demise and/or protein accumulation.  相似文献   
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