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1.
Several well-known neuropsychological tests of working memory performance, hitherto thought to be unrelated, in fact share a common structure termed here the self-ordered selection paradigm. Examples include the subject-ordered pointing task, variants of the Corsi blocks test, the multiple-location search task, and the letter-recitation task. The defining features of the paradigm are outlined. A statistical framework for assessing and testing hypotheses about working memory capacity in the self-ordered selection paradigm is described. To enable neuropsychologists to conduct a rapid statistical analysis of working memory performance, a computer program is presented along with detailed practical examples of three useful statistical procedures for both single-case and group-based analysis. The program may be accessed and executed online over the Internet.  相似文献   
2.
Lesions to the cerebellum often give rise to ataxic dysarthria which is characterized by a primary disruption to articulation and prosody. Converging evidence supports the likelihood of speech motor programming abnormalities in addition to speech execution deficits. The understanding of ataxic dysarthria has been further refined by the development of neural network models and neuroimaging studies. A critical role of feedforward processing by the cerebellum has been established and linked to speech motor control and to aspects of ataxic dysarthria. Moreover, this research has helped to define models of the cerebellar contributions to speech processing and production, and to posit possible regions of speech localization within the cerebellum. Bilateral, superior areas of the cerebellum appear to mediate speech motor control while a putative role of the right cerebellar hemispheres in the planning and processing of speech has been suggested.  相似文献   
3.
Gainotti G 《Neuropsychologia》2005,43(11):1633-1644
The aim of this systematic review of single case studies of patients showing a category-specific disorder was to evaluate the influence of gender and lesion location on category-specific disorders for biological versus artefact categories and, within the former, for animals versus plant life categories. Two complementary studies were made, taking into account all the available single case reports of category-specific disorders found in the literature.The first study consisted of an overall statistical evaluation of the influence that gender and lesion location can have upon naming scores obtained with these different categories in patients selected only because they showed some kind of category-specific disorder.The second study assessed the influence of these variables on more selected groups of patients, contrasting those showing a categorical impairment for living things versus artefacts and, respectively, for animals versus plant life categories.Results of these studies consistently showed that: (a) Lesion location has a strong influence on the distinction between biological and artefacts categories, but not on that between animals and plant life domains. In patients with a prevalent impairment either for animals or for plant life items, lesions usually encroach upon the anterior or the posterior parts of the ventral stream of visual processing, whereas in patients with a prevalent impairment for artefacts they are located elsewhere (usually on more dorsal structures of the brain).(b) Gender, on the contrary, does not influence the distinction between living and non-living things, but, within the living entities, has a strong influence on the distinction between animals and plant life. Consistent with data obtained in normal people, which show that men are more familiar with animals and women with fruit and vegetables, men were, indeed, more impaired with plant life categories, whereas women were more impaired with animals.  相似文献   
4.
Selective attention to sound location or pitch studied with fMRI   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
We used 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare the brain mechanisms underlying selective attention to sound location and pitch. In different tasks, the subjects (N = 10) attended to a designated sound location or pitch or to pictures presented on the screen. In the Attend Location conditions, the sound location varied randomly (left or right), while the pitch was kept constant (high or low). In the Attend Pitch conditions, sounds of randomly varying pitch (high or low) were presented at a constant location (left or right). Both attention to location and attention to pitch produced enhanced activity (in comparison with activation caused by the same sounds when attention was focused on the pictures) in widespread areas of the superior temporal cortex. Attention to either sound feature also activated prefrontal and inferior parietal cortical regions. These activations were stronger during attention to location than during attention to pitch. Attention to location but not to pitch produced a significant increase of activation in the premotor/supplementary motor cortices of both hemispheres and in the right prefrontal cortex, while no area showed activity specifically related to attention to pitch. The present results suggest some differences in the attentional selection of sounds on the basis of their location and pitch consistent with the suggested auditory "what" and "where" processing streams.  相似文献   
5.
INTRODUCTION: Current clinical likelihood models for predicting pulmonary embolism (PE) are used to categorize outpatients into low, intermediate and high clinical pre-test likelihood of PE. Since these clinical prediction rules were developed using outpatients it is not known if they can be applied universally to both inpatients and outpatients with suspected PE. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of patient location on the performance of clinical models to predict PE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two clinical models (Wells and Wicki) were applied to data from the multi-centered PIOPED study. The Wells score was applied to 1359 patients and the Wicki score was applied to 998 patients. 361 patients (27%) from the PIOPED study did not have arterial gas measurement and were excluded from the Wicki score patient group. Patients were stratified by their location at the time of entry into the PIOPED study as follows: outpatient/emergency, surgical ward, medicine/coronary care unit or intensive care unit. The diagnostic performance of the two clinical models was applied to the various patient locations and the performance was evaluated using the area under a fitted receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: The prevalence of PE in the three clinical probability categories were similar for the two scoring methods. Both clinical models yielded the lowest diagnostic performance in patients referred from surgical wards. The AUC for both clinical prediction rules decreased significantly when applied to inpatients in comparison to outpatients. CONCLUSIONS: Current clinical prediction rules for determining the pre-test likelihood of PE yielded different diagnostic performances depending upon patient location. The performance of the clinical prediction rules decreased significantly when applied to inpatients. In particular, the rules performed least well when applied to patients referred from surgical wards suggesting these rules should not be used in this patient group. As expected the clinical prediction rules performed best in outpatients with the optimum diagnostic performance in patients referred from emergency and outpatient wards.  相似文献   
6.
The aim of this study was to test whether the association between disability and depressive symptoms in patients with cervicogenic headache is similar to that found in primary headaches or to the pattern found in low back pain. During a 2-year period, 716 consecutive patients with the clinical diagnosis of cervicogenic headache (n=182), low back pain (n=116), migraine (n=231), tension-type headache (n=176), and cluster headache (n=11) filled in the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Disability was scored by the migraine disability score questionnaire reflecting the number of days with lost or decreased work, household and social activities. Non-parametric tests and multiple general regression were used for statistical analysis. In multivariate testing, significant independent determinants of disability were pain frequency, pain intensity and the severity of depressive symptoms in migraine and tension-type headache; pain frequency and the BDI score in cervicogenic headache, and pain frequency alone in low back pain. Disability is related to pain frequency in all pain syndromes evaluated in the present study. The level of disability is associated with the severity of pain only in primary headaches, but not in pain syndromes of vertebral origin (cervicogenic headache and low back pain). Disability is associated with the severity of depressive symptoms in all headache types but not in low back pain. Both the location and the etiology of pain have importance in determining the interrelationship between pain characteristics, depression and disability.  相似文献   
7.
Events are stored in our episodic memory in varying degrees of accessibility for conscious retrieval and combined with varying amounts of associated information. A crucial aspect of episodic memory is to bind information together, e.g. linking an object to a certain location. Spontaneous or experimenter-induced variance in the allocation of attentional resources during encoding critically determines the strength of the resulting memory trace especially for associative information as measured in subsequent memory tests. The neural correlates of associative memory encoding were investigated by lesion, PET- and fMRI-studies. So far no study aimed to assess the memory for associative information in a non-categorical way. Such a parametric assessment opens the possibility for a closer inspection of the relationship between brain activity and memory trace formation. We established a novel associative object-location memory paradigm, together with a parametric assessment of subsequent memory performance for spatial location which allows: (i) to determine if associative information is retrieved in a continuous or discontinuous manner during recognition and (ii) to investigate the relationship between activity during encoding and the resulting memory trace. Such correlations were observed in the occipital, parietal and the parahippocampal cortex, areas known to be involved in processing either objects and/or locations. The analysis of response functions revealed for the majority of areas involved in encoding a continuous relationship between brain activity during encoding and the confidence in a subsequent memory test.  相似文献   
8.
Detailed distribution of mRNAs encoding alpha and beta subunits of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) was examined in the brain of rainbow trout by in situ hybridization. In addition, distribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was mapped in adjacent parallel sections by neuronal NOS (nNOS) immunocytochemistry and NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd) histochemistry. Following application of digoxigenin-labeled riboprobes for sGC alpha and beta subunit mRNAs, we found comparatively intense hybridization signals in the telencephalon, preoptic area, thalamus, hypothalamus, pretectum and tegmentum. Both nNOS immunocytochemistry and NADPHd histochemistry showed extensive distribution of nitroxergic neurons in various brain areas, although various degrees of dissociation of nNOS immunoreactivity (ir) and NADPHd staining were detected. In comparison with sGC subunit mRNAs, nNOS signals were more widely distributed in many neurons, including parvocellular neurons in the preoptic area, nucleus anterior tuberis in the hypothalamus, periventricular neurons in the optic tectum, most of the rhombencephalic neurons and pituitary cells. However, wide overlaps of sGC mRNA-containing neurons and nNOS-positive neurons were observed in the olfactory bulb, telencephalon, preoptic area, thalamus, hypothalamus, pretectum, optic tectum, tegmentum and cerebellum. The widespread overlapping in sGC subunit mRNAs and nNOS distribution suggests a role for sGC in various neuronal functions, such as processing of olfactory and visual signals and neuroendocrine function, possibly via NO/cGMP signaling in the brain of rainbow trout.  相似文献   
9.
This research uses population-based administrative data linking health service use to longitudinal postal code information to describe the residential mobility of individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI), schizophrenia. This group is compared to two cohorts, one with no mental illness, and one with a severe physical illness of inflammatory bowel disease. The percentage of individuals with one or more changes in postal code in a 3-year period is examined, along with measures of rural-to-rural regional migration and rural-to-urban migration. Demographic, socioeconomic, and health service use characteristics are examined as determinants of mobility. The odds of moving were twice as high for the SMI cohort as for either of the other two cohorts. There were no statistically significant differences in rural-to-rural or rural-to-urban migration among the cohorts. Marital status, income quintile, and use of physicians are consistent determinants of mobility. The results are discussed from the perspectives of health services planning and access to housing.  相似文献   
10.
Abstract Whilst the debate about cerebral localisation of articulate speech was raging in France in the 1860s and in particular with reference to the observations of Paul Broca, there were also some Italians who attempted to make a contribution on the subject. Among those was the physician Antonio Berti, who in 1865 furnished some interesting observations on the association of aphasia with the frontal lobe. In this paper we intend to revive this forgotten episode that represents one of the early Italian observations on the issue of cortical localisation of speech.  相似文献   
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