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1.
OBJECTIVE: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is associated with insomnia and impaired quality of life (QoL) in patients on maintenance dialysis; however, no information has been published on the association of RLS and QoL in kidney-transplanted patients. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed the complex relationship between RLS, insomnia, and health-related QoL in kidney-transplanted patients. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey at a single transplant center, 1067 patients were invited to participate. Complete data set was available from 785 kidney-transplanted patients. The RLS Questionnaire and the Athens Insomnia Scale were used to assess the prevalence of RLS and insomnia, respectively. QoL was measured using the Kidney Disease QoL-SF Questionnaire. RESULTS: Patients with RLS were three times more likely to have insomnia than patients without RLS (29% vs. 9%, P=.001), and the presence of RLS was a significant and independent predictor of insomnia in multivariate analysis. The presence of RLS was independently associated with impaired health-related QoL along several QoL domains after statistical adjustment for clinical and sociodemographic covariables. Importantly, this association remained significant even after adjusting for insomnia for some QoL domains. CONCLUSION: RLS is associated with poor sleep, increased odds for insomnia, and impaired QoL in kidney-transplanted patients. Our results suggest that both sleep-related and sleep-independent factors may contribute to the association of RLS and QoL.  相似文献   
2.
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the role of individual and combined sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs in late-life insomnia. METHODS: Older adults who responded to an advertisement in a magazine took part in a cross-sectional survey (N=382). Respondents completed self-report measures of dysfunctional beliefs about sleep (Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes to Sleep Scale) as well as measures of their current sleep patterns. RESULTS: Overall, people with insomnia (PWI) endorsed more extreme ratings of dysfunctional beliefs than "good sleepers" did. However, some sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs did not discriminate PWIs from good sleepers nor were they related to experiencing a longer duration of insomnia. CONCLUSION: This article demonstrates that not all sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs are related to reporting insomnia and that some are not related to a longer reported duration of insomnia, possibly changing through personal experience. These preliminary results may have implications for tailoring the cognitive aspects of psychoeducational programmes for people with late-life insomnia.  相似文献   
3.
OBJECTIVES: Maladaptive sleep beliefs play an important role in primary insomnia, but their role in other disorders with concomitant sleep disruption has rarely been explored. Thus, this study investigated the link between insomnia and sleep beliefs in five groups (N=422): primary insomnia (PI), good sleepers (GS), fibromyalgia (FM), major depressive disorder (MDD), and Community Sleep Clinic patients with comorbid insomnia and mood disturbance (CSC). METHOD: Groups were compared on the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep (DBAS-16) scale. RESULTS: Unlike the GS group, the MDD, FM, and CSC groups had elevated DBAS-16 scores that were similar to, or more pathological than, those of primary insomnia sufferers. Only some of the differences were removed after controlling for depression. CONCLUSION: Like primary insomnia patients, other sleep-disturbed patient groups have problematic sleep beliefs. Depression was not sufficient to account for all elevations in beliefs. The presence of maladaptive sleep beliefs in these patients suggests that belief-targeted treatment might be helpful in alleviating sleep complaints.  相似文献   
4.
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationship of psychological and health-related quality of life variables to insomnia in a population-based sample. METHODS: Data were derived from a longitudinal epidemiological study assessing the natural history of insomnia. The present results are based on the first of four postal evaluations conducted over a 2-year period. Participants (n=953) completed questionnaires assessing sleep, psychological and personality variables, and health-related factors. Participants were categorized into three sleep status subgroups using an algorithm based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision and International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition diagnostic criteria for insomnia: (1) insomnia syndrome (n=147), (2) insomnia symptoms (n=308), and (3) good sleepers (n=493). RESULTS: Compared to individuals with insomnia symptoms and good sleepers, individuals with insomnia syndrome presented lower quality of life and higher scores on measures of depression, anxiety, neuroticism, extraversion, arousal predisposition, stress perception, and emotion-oriented coping. The same pattern was observed for individuals with insomnia symptoms in comparison with good sleepers. An ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of a past episode of insomnia, higher depressive symptoms, and lower scores on the 12-item Short Form Health Survey vitality and role physical subscales were the most useful variables to predict subgroups membership. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that insomnia is associated with increased psychological symptomatology and perceived stress, higher predisposition to arousal, and more impairment of health quality. Longitudinal follow-ups are now being conducted to assess the relative contribution of those variables in the development and natural course of insomnia.  相似文献   
5.
Summary Background. Heterogeneity in clinical presentation and daytime somnolence in restless legs syndrome (RLS) have been poorly explored in the UK. Material and methods. Analysis of database of 152 cases of primary RLS compiled from clinical consultation using a structured questionnaire administration and clinical examination, spanning six years of referral. Standard evaluations included use of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Secondary RLS was excluded and polysomnography performed in some when clinically indicated. Results. The mean duration of RLS before appropriate treatment initiation was 12.7 years (age range of patients 26–90 years). 79% of patients had insomnia while 30% had excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Severe pain, restless arms and paroxysmal RLS causing lifestyle alterations also occurred. Conclusions. This study suggests that there is considerable delay before appropriate therapy in RLS. A large number have EDS and insomnia among others, is the commonest presenting feature. Phenotypic heterogeneity may cause diagnostic difficulty.  相似文献   
6.
Sleep disorders are common in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Two sleep questionnaires; the Brown ADD Scale, the Symptom-Checklist-90-R, and a self-developed symptom questionnaire were administered in this study. In a sample of 61 patients without comorbidity, current substance abuse and medication intake, sleep problems were reported more often than in healthy controls. A lack of being refreshed in the morning was very closely associated with ADHD symptomatology whereas insomnia was related to the presence of comorbidity and depressive symptoms. In the total sample (N = 120), medication intake (mainly stimulants) was not related to any of the sleep parameters. It seems important to screen adult patients with ADHD for the presence of sleep disorders, especially insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and sleep-related breathing disorders (the last in conjunction with the body mass index). Since primary sleep disorders are associated with cognitive impairment, one might expect that ADHD symptomatology may improve if comorbid sleep disorders are adequately treated in addition to the specific ADHD treatment.  相似文献   
7.
THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-[5,4-c]pyridine-3-ol, Gaboxadol) is a selective gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) agonist, acting in vitro with high potency and efficacy at the extrasynaptic GABA(A)delta-containing receptors. THIP was suggested to be a potential hypnotic to treat insomnia, and it is currently in clinical trial. Here we assessed whether the GABA(A)delta-containing receptors mediate in vivo the effect of THIP on sleep and the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG). We performed EEG recordings in a mouse model deficient in the GABA(A)delta-subunit gene (delta(-/-) mice) and in wild-type littermate controls. THIP (4 and 6 mg/kg intraperitoneally) induced an abnormal EEG pattern, resulting in dramatic changes in the waking and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep EEG spectra in wild-type mice. Indeed, a massive increase in EEG power lasting 2-3 h occurred in both the frontal and parietal derivation, especially in frequencies below 6 Hz. All effects were more prominent in the frontal EEG. Furthermore, the highest dose of THIP lengthened REM sleep latency and suppressed REM sleep. In contrast, vigilance states and sleep latencies were not affected in delta(-/-) mice. Moreover, only minor changes were observed in the NREM sleep EEG spectrum after THIP injection in the delta-subunit-deficient mice. The present findings do not indicate a sleep-promoting effect of THIP in mice, which is in accordance with a previous report in this species. Moreover, our results in vivo demonstrate that THIP acts preferentially at GABA(A) receptors containing the delta-subunit.  相似文献   
8.
This article reviews circadian thermoregulation in relation to sleep induction and phase of entrainment in the light of the comprehensive thermophysiological and chronobiological concepts of Jürgen Aschoff. The idea that temperature and sleep are interrelated is based on evolutionary history. Mammalian sleep developed in association with endothermy, and all species, independent of temporal niche, usually sleep during the circadian trough of their core body temperature (CBT) rhythm. The circadian pattern of CBT results from the balance between heat production and heat loss, the latter being relevant for sleep induction. Sleep under entrained conditions is typically initiated on the declining portion of the CBT curve when its rate of change and body heat loss is maximal. Body heat loss before lights off, via selective vasodilatation of distal skin regions, promotes sleepiness and the rapid onset of sleep. This thermophysiological effect represents the cement between the circadian clock and the sleep-wake cycle, and in turn determines phase of entrainment (Psi) and sleep onset latency (SOL). These interrelationships have been recently studied in a particular subset of the general population, mainly women, who suffer from cold hands and feet (the so-called vasospastic syndrome, VS). Women with VS exhibit not only a lower capacity to lose heat during the daytime but also a prolonged SOL, a disturbed Psi of the circadian clock with respect to the sleep-wake cycle and psychologically, a disposition to turn experienced anger inwards. This naturalistic model leads us to a more general conclusion that regulation of distal skin blood flow may have clinical relevance for insomnia, in particular sleep onset insomnia.  相似文献   
9.
OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to clarify the prevalence of the use of alcohol and hypnotic medication as sleep aids, and associated factors, in the general population in Japan. METHODS: The survey was conducted in June 2000, using self-administered questionnaires, targeting a population that was selected randomly from among 300 communities throughout Japan. A total of 18,205 responses indicating alcohol use and 16,804 responses indicating hypnotic medication use were analyzed. RESULTS: The prevalence of alcohol use as a sleep aid one or more times per week was 48.3% among men and 18.3% among women. The prevalence of the use of hypnotic medication one or more times per week was 4.3% among men and 5.9% among women. The prevalence of alcohol used as a sleep aid increased gradually for men and women up to age 55-59 years and 40-44 years, respectively, and then declined with increasing age thereafter. The prevalence of the use of hypnotic medication among both men and women showed a trend toward a gradual increase with age. The use of alcohol as a sleep aid was associated with "difficulty maintaining sleep," but no such problem was associated with the use of hypnotic medication. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol is a more popular sleep aid than hypnotic medication. The factors associated with the use of alcohol and of hypnotic medication are different.  相似文献   
10.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We analyzed archival data from an epidemiology study to test the association between vitamin use and sleep. DESIGN: Random digit dialing was used to recruit 772 people ranging in age from 20 to 98 for a study of people's sleep experience. These individuals completed a set of questionnaires about their sleep, health, and daytime functioning. Five hundred and nineteen of these participants had available vitamin use data. SETTING: Home. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred and nineteen people participated. Recruitment applied minimal screening criteria and no attempt was made to favor people with or without sleep disturbance. INTERVENTIONS: This survey included no intervention. Participants completed 2 weeks of sleep diaries and a set of questionnaires. Of particular salience to the present study, participants reported their vitamin use in listing all medications and nutritional supplements being used currently. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: For those individuals taking a multivitamin or multiple single vitamins, sleep diaries revealed poorer sleep compared to non-vitamin users in the number and duration of awakenings during the night. After controlling for age, ethnicity, and sex the difference in number of awakenings was still marginally significant. The rate of insomnia, conservatively defined, and consumption of sleep medication were also marginally significantly higher among individuals taking multi-/multiple vitamins compared to those not taking vitamins. CONCLUSIONS: Disturbed sleep maintenance was associated with multi-/multiple vitamin use. Five equally plausible explanations were advanced to explain this association including vitamins cause poor sleep, poor sleepers seek vitamins, and unidentified factors promote both poor sleep and vitamin use. These data are considered preliminary. Methodological characteristics of future studies were described that hold the promise of more clearly illuminating the association between vitamins and sleep.  相似文献   
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