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1.
Neurofibrillary tangle predominant dementia (NFTPD) is a subset of late onset dementia, clinically different from traditional "plaque and tangle" Alzheimer disease (AD): later onset, shorter duration, less severe cognitive impairment, and almost absence of ApoE epsilon4. Neuropathology reveals abundant allocortical neurofibrillary pathology with no or few isocortical tau lesions, absence of neuritic plaques, absence or scarcity of amyloid deposits, but neurofibrillary changes comprising both 3 and 4 repeat (3R and 4R) tau immunohistochemistry are not significantly different from those in classical AD. Comparing 51 autopsy cases of NFTPD with 244 classical AD subjects, the nosology of NFTPD and its differences from AD are discussed.  相似文献   
2.
Memory for faces and names has increasingly become a focus of cognitive assessment and research in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This paper reviews evidence from cognitive and clinical neuroscience regarding the question of whether AD is associated with a specific deficit in face recognition, face-name association, and retrieval of semantic information and names. Cognitive approaches conceptualizing face recognition and face-name association have revealed that, compared to other types of visual stimuli, faces are "special" because of their complexity and high intraclass similarity, and because their association with proper names is arbitrary and unique. Neuroimaging has revealed that due to this particular status, face perception requires a complex interplay of highly specialized secondary visual areas located in the occipitotemporal cortex with a widely distributed system of cortical areas subserving further task-dependent processing. Our review of clinical research suggests that AD-related deficits in face recognition are primarily due to mnestic rather than perceptual deficits. Memory for previously studied or famous faces is closely related to mediotemporal and temporocortical brain regions subserving episodic and semantic memory in general, suggesting that AD-related impairments in this domain are due to neural degeneration in these areas. Despite limited specificity due to the apparent absence of a "genuine" domain-specific deficit of face memory in AD, testing memory for faces and names is useful in clinical contexts, as it provides highly sensitive indices of episodic and semantic memory performance. Therefore, clinical assessment of face memory can usefully contribute to early detection of memory deficits in prodromal and initial stages of AD, and represents a basis for further attempts at rehabilitation. Further advantages, such as ecological validity, high task comprehensibility and, in the case of novel face learning, independence from premorbid intelligence level, render measures of face recognition valuable for clinical assessment in early AD.  相似文献   
3.
The purpose of this paper is to update the state of knowledge with respect to long-term monitoring (LTM) in epilepsy and to formulate recommendations regarding the application of LTM in clinical practice. LTM is an established technique in use both in a hospital setting and, increasingly, in an ambulatory and more recently in a community-based setting. There has been sufficient evidence to substantiate the claim that LTM is of crucial importance in documenting electroclinical correlations both in epilepsy and in paroxysmally occurring behavioral changes often mistaken for epilepsy. Internationally recognized neurophysiological equipment standards, data acquisition and data transfer protocols and widely accepted safety standards have made widespread access to LTM facilities in epilepsy possible. Recommendations on efficient and effective use of resources as well as regarding training and competencies for personnel involved in LTM in epilepsy have been formulated. The DMC Neurophysiology Subcommittee of the ILAE recommends use of hospital-based LTM in the documentation of seizures including its application for assessing seizure type and frequency, in the evaluation of status epilepticus, in noninvasive and invasive video/EEG investigations for epilepsy surgery and for the differential diagnosis between epilepsy and paroxysmally occurring nonepileptic conditions, in children and in adults. Ambulatory outpatient and community-based LTM may be used as a substitute for inpatient LTM in cases where the latter is not cost-effective or feasible or when activation procedures aimed at increasing seizure yield are not indicated. However, outpatient ambulatory monitoring may be less informative than is inpatient monitoring in some cases because: (1) reduction of medication to provoke seizures may not be safe as an outpatient; (2) faulty electrode contacts cannot quickly be noticed and repaired; (3) the patient may move out of video surveillance; and (4) duration of ambulatory monitoring can be limited by technical constraints.  相似文献   
4.
BACKGROUND: Nocturnal frontal lobe seizures (NFLS) show one or all of the following semeiological patterns: (1) paroxysmal arousals (PA: brief and sudden recurrent motor paroxysmal behavior); (2) hyperkinetic seizures (HS: motor attacks with complex dyskinetic features); (3) asymmetric bilateral tonic seizures (ATS: motor attacks with dystonic features); (4) epileptic nocturnal wanderings (ENW: stereotyped, prolonged ambulatory behavior). OBJECTIVE: To estimate the interobserver reliability (IR) of video-recording diagnosis in patients with suspected NFLS among sleep medicine experts, epileptologists, and trainees in sleep medicine. METHODS: Sixty-six patients with suspected NFLS were included. All underwent nocturnal video-polysomnographic recording. Six doctors (three experts and three trainees) independently classified each case as "NFLS ascertained" (according to the above specified subtypes: PA, HS, ATS, ENW) or "NFLS excluded". IR was calculated by means of Kappa statistics, and interpreted according to the standard classification (0.0-0.20 = slight agreement; 0.21-0.40 = fair; 0.41-0.60 = moderate; 0.61-0.80 = substantial; 0.81-1.00 = almost perfect). RESULTS: The observed raw agreement ranged from 63% to 79% between each pair of raters; the IR ranged from "moderate" (kappa = 0.50) to "substantial" (kappa = 0.72). A major source of variance was the disagreement in distinguishing between PA and nonepileptic arousals, without differences in the level of agreement between experts and trainees. CONCLUSIONS: Among sleep experts and trainees, IR of diagnosis of NFLS, based on videotaped observation of sleep phenomena, is not satisfactory. Explicit video-polysomnographic criteria for the classification of paroxysmal sleep motor phenomena are needed.  相似文献   
5.
Hamiwka LD  Singh N  Niosi J  Wirrell EC 《Epilepsia》2007,48(6):1062-1066
PURPOSE: To determine (a) the range of diagnoses, and (b) the prevalence of previous seizures in children presenting to a first seizure clinic. METHODS: One hundred twenty-seven children were seen in a tertiary care First Seizure Clinic. Inclusion criteria were age 1 month-17 years with an unprovoked event suggestive of seizure. Data collected included referring physician specialty, child's age, gender, developmental status, and clinical diagnosis of epileptologist (nonepileptic vs. epileptic). For those with epileptic events, seizure type, syndrome (if identifiable), presumed etiology (idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic), presence of prior afebrile and febrile seizures, provoking factors, family history, pre/perinatal complications and EEG results were recorded. RESULTS: The diagnosis was epileptic in 94 (74%), nonepileptic in 31 (24%) and unclassifiable in two (2%). Pediatricians were more likely to refer true epileptic events (92%) than ED physicians (76%) or family physicians (65%). Mean age at presentation was 8 years. Fifteen percent of children were developmentally delayed and neurological examination was abnormal in 11%. For those diagnosed with epileptic events, 32 presented with generalized while 62 presented with partial onset seizures. An epilepsy syndrome was identifiable in 15 cases. Thirty-eight percent experienced a prior probable seizure which was recognized by the referring physician in only one case. An EEG was done in all children with seizures and was abnormal in 41%. Early EEG was performed in 20% of children and did not show statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic inaccuracy is common in first seizure. One quarter of children were incorrectly diagnosed as having a seizure while the diagnosis of epilepsy was missed in over one-third of children.  相似文献   
6.
Most adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are not recognized and remain untreated, although a large fraction of these individuals are diagnosed and treated for other comorbid mental disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD). The fact that MDD is one of the most commonly occurring mental disorders with high comorbidity with adult ADHD raises the question whether such comorbidity is associated with differences in the clinical picture of ADHD. Three hundred and twenty adult ADHD outpatients were evaluated. Diagnoses followed DSM-IV criteria. Interviews to evaluate ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) were performed based on the Portuguese version of K-SADS-E. Psychiatric comorbidities were investigated using SCID-IV and MINI. Regression models were applied to test MDD association with clinical and demographic outcomes. Subjects presenting ADHD and MDD had a higher frequency of generalized anxiety disorder and social phobia and a lower frequency of substance dependence, grade repetition and school suspensions, when compared to subjects with ADHD without MDD. Furthermore, adults presenting ADHD and MDD reported higher demand for psychotherapy and pharmacological treatment prior to enrollment in the study when compared to ADHD subjects free of MDD. However, contrary to what could be expected based on these data, the presence of MDD was not associated with an earlier ADHD diagnosis. These results point to the need for research and medical education into an earlier and more efficient ADHD diagnosis in patients who search for mental health care.  相似文献   
7.
OBJECTIVE: Delirium is highly prevalent in general hospitals but remains underrecognized and undertreated despite its association with increased morbidity, mortality, and health services utilization. To enhance its management, we developed guidelines covering all aspects, from risk factor identification to preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic interventions in adult patients. METHODS: Guidelines, systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCT), and cohort studies were systematically searched and evaluated. Based on a synthesis of retrieved high-quality documents, recommendation items were submitted to a multidisciplinary expert panel. Experts scored the appropriateness of recommendation items, using an evidence-based, explicit, multidisciplinary panel approach. Each recommendation was graded according to this process' results. RESULTS: Rated recommendations were mostly supported by a low level of evidence (1.3% RCT and systematic reviews, 14.3% nonrandomized trials vs. 84.4% observational studies or expert opinions). Nevertheless, 71.1% of recommendations were considered appropriate by the experts. Prevention of delirium and its nonpharmacological management should be fostered. Haloperidol remains the first-choice drug, whereas the role of atypical antipsychotics is still uncertain. CONCLUSIONS: While many topics addressed in these guidelines have not yet been adequately studied, an explicit panel and evidence-based approach allowed the proposal of comprehensive recommendations for the prevention and management of delirium in general hospitals.  相似文献   
8.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine (a) the causal effect of unemployment 1990-1997 on health 1998-2001 (in-patient periods) and (b) the selection effect of health 1996-1999 on unemployment 2000-2002. We examined the effects of different diagnoses, namely, all causes, circulatory diseases, diseases of the digestive system, musculoskeletal diseases, and mental disorders. METHODS: The data from the Central Register of Health Care Professionals of persons born 1945-1970 were linked to data from employment statistics and Finnish Hospital Discharge Register including 78,195 women and 12,455 men aged 31 to 56 in 2001. The associations were analyzed with logistic regression analyses and expressed as odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: After adjustments, existence of unemployment periods was associated with lower odds for in-patient periods due to musculoskeletal diseases for both women (OR=0.82, 95% CI=0.76-0.89) and men (OR=0.74, 95% CI=0.60-0.89). Unemployment periods were more likely among women (OR=1.65, 95% CI=1.33-2.04) and men (OR=2.54, 95% CI=1.44-4.48) having had in-patient periods due to mental diseases and among women also due to diseases of the digestive system (OR=1.17, 95% CI=1.04-1.31). CONCLUSION: The present study found evidence for selection to unemployment according to mental diseases and diseases of the digestive system among health care professionals. In addition, our results show that unemployment periods may protect health care workers from musculoskeletal diseases.  相似文献   
9.
The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature to determine whether racial disparities exist in the diagnosis and treatment of depression in the United States. A literature search using PubMed of potentially relevant articles in English that include data from population-based studies examining the diagnosis and/or treatment of depression; or data from prospective studies stratifying the rates of diagnosis and/or treatment of depression by race/ethnicity and ethnic comparisons between Caucasians, African Americans and/or Hispanics. Initial searches identified 2,396 articles. On the basis of our criteria, 14 articles were eligible for inclusion in this review. Four included data on the diagnosis of depression in different ethnic groups; their results were not consistent. Twelve included data on treatment variability in the treatment of depression; overall these suggested lower rates of treatment for African Americans and Hispanics than for Caucasians. More research is needed focusing on ethnic variation in the diagnosis of depression. Racial disparities exist in the treatment of depression. Sources of Support: This material is based upon work supported in part by the Houston Center for Quality of Care & Utilization Studies, Health Services Research and Development Service, Office of Research and Development.  相似文献   
10.
Patterns of reinstitutionalization following psychiatric hospitalization for individuals with serious mental illnesses (SMI) vary by medical and psychiatric health care settings. This report presents rates of reinstitutionalization across care settings for 35,527 patients following psychiatric discharge in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health system, a national health care system. Over a 7-year follow-up period, 30,417 patients (86%) were reinstitutionalized. Among these patients, 73% were initially reinstitutionalized to inpatient psychiatric settings. Homelessness, medical morbidity, and substance use were associated with increased risks for reinstitutionalization. Despite the VA's increased emphasis on outpatient services delivery, the vast majority of patients experienced reinstitutionalization in the follow-up period. Study findings may inform efforts to refine psychiatric and medical assessment for service delivery for this vulnerable population.  相似文献   
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