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1.
Jones JE  Bell B  Fine J  Rutecki P  Seidenberg M  Hermann B 《Epilepsia》2007,48(12):2357-2360
Temporal lobe epilepsy patients (n = 48) and healthy controls (n = 69) underwent structured psychiatric interview at baseline and 4 years later to characterize the course of DSM-IV Axis I disorders. Adjusting for the influence of prior psychiatric history, epilepsy subjects exhibit significantly greater risk of interval episodes of Total Axis I Disorders and Mood Disorders, indicating a poorer prognosis for these comorbidities in the context of chronic temporal lobe epilepsy.  相似文献   
2.
PURPOSE: The glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and depression. Since these psychiatric disorders are common in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), a comparison of TLE patients with and without coexisting psychiatric symptoms may be useful to unravel pathophysiologic mechanisms for psychosis or depression. METHODS: We used immunoautoradiography to assess the NR1 NMDA receptor subunit and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in resected TLE hippocampus. RESULTS: No changes relative to comparison controls were found for TLE patients with schizophrenia-like psychosis or depression. Increased NR1 was found in the dentate molecular layer in the dysphoria group and unmedicated depressed patients. CONCLUSIONS: An increase in NR1 protein in the dentate molecular layer suggests an upregulation of NMDA receptors in granule cells in TLE patients with dysphoria and depression. This finding is compatible with the theory that increased NMDA receptor function is involved in the pathogenesis of depression and that antidepressants may act by opposing this mechanism.  相似文献   
3.
Mood disorders compose a considerable portion of the worldwide prevailing diseases with high suicide rates and urgent demand for novel therapeutic interventions as efficacious treatment is still lacking. Depression is thought to feature distinct morphological correlatives in the brain and has recently been linked to adult neurogenesis (NG) in the hippocampal formation. Numerous findings give rise to the hypothesis that depression and declining NG in the hippocampus may be causally connected. This implies that depressive symptoms could originate from impairments in NG and, vice versa, that improved NG could mediate antidepressant action and alleviate symptoms. Thus, great hopes rest on the question whether the observed increase in NG following antidepression treatment may have the potential to become a novel drug target and specific mechanism in the development of the next generation of antidepressants that specifically involves targeting of neuropoetic factors in addition to their "traditional" effects as modulators of synaptic transmission. Along the still hypothetical association of depression and NG, however, several controversies and unresolved questions exist with respect to the presently available data and interpretation. This article highlights and summarizes some of the most pressing issues and identifies the crucial ones that await urgent clarification and resolving. Without their reliable answering, the fascinating notion of a neurogenic basis for depression will remain to be greatly speculative.  相似文献   
4.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare health-related quality of life (HR-QoL), disability/work productivity, and health care utilization in a variety of medical disorders with and without comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) in the general population. METHODS: Twelve-month MDD (Composite International Diagnostic Interview) diagnosis was determined among 4181 participants from a community sample. Medical diagnoses (respiratory, cardiovascular, allergic, endocrine/metabolic, gastrointestinal, and neurological diseases) were made after medical examination. HR-QoL was evaluated with the MOS-SF-36. Outpatient doctor visits and disability/work productivity were assessed by self-report. RESULTS: Comorbid MDD was associated with a lower SF-36 mental summary score in all medical diagnoses and with a lower physical summary score in comorbid allergic and neurological disorders. The number of coexisting medical disorders was strongly related to lower physical and mental summary scores in cases without comorbid depression. The number of outpatient doctor visits increased by 42% when any of the medical disorders without comorbid MDD was present, and comorbid MDD was associated with a further 24-42% increase, depending on the medical disorder. Comorbid MDD was strongly associated with lower full-time working status (37.1% with MDD vs. 51.0% without MDD) and with a significant increase in disability days (45%) in the presence of any medical disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Findings have consequences for diagnostic and treatment procedures, as well as in relation to the importance of the number of medical disorders in future studies.  相似文献   
5.
Depression and physical comorbidity in primary care   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
OBJECTIVE: To analyse how clinical characteristics in depressed patients, as well as the management of their depression, are related to the presence of significant physical comorbidity. METHODS: This is a two-phase cross-sectional study that took place in 10 primary care centres in Tarragona (Spain). A total of 906 consecutive patients were screened for depression with a self-rating questionnaire and 306 were subject to a structured interview that contained the diagnoses of major depression and dysthymia (DSM-IV), and the severity of the physical comorbidity (Duke Severity of Illness Scale: DUSOI). The association of several clinical variables with the presence of physical comorbidity was evaluated. RESULTS: The comorbidity was of moderate to extreme severity (DUSOI >50) in 31.7% of cases. The patients with comorbidity visited the physician more often. There were no differences in the consumption of antidepressants, reason for the consultation (psychological/somatic), or the probability of being detected as depressed. Neither were there any differences in the severity or disability between both groups. CONCLUSION: Physical comorbidity is frequent in primary care depressed patients. In general, the characteristics of depression and the handling by the doctor are similar in patients with and without comorbidity.  相似文献   
6.
OBJECTIVES: (1) To assess the overall performance of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) as a screening instrument to identify cases of major depressive disorder (MDD) in mixed cancer outpatients. (2) To determine the sensitivity and specificity of various HADS cut-off scores. (3) To recommend an optimal HADS cut-off score for use in this population. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire and interview survey of consecutive patients attending outpatient clinics in a regional cancer centre in Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom. RESULTS: Thirty (8.3%) of 361 patients met criteria for MDD at interview. With the use of the total HADS score to identify these cases of MDD, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.91-0.97). A cut-off of 14/15 gave a sensitivity of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.70-0.95), a specificity of 0.85 (95% CI, 0.81-0.89), and a positive predictive value of 0.35, and was considered optimal. CONCLUSION: The HADS can be used effectively as an initial screening tool for the detection of MDD in outpatients attending mixed cancer clinics.  相似文献   
7.
8.
Most prospective studies of HPA axis have found that non-suppressors in the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) are more likely to commit suicide during the follow-up. Attempted suicide is a strong clinical predictor of suicide. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of DST for suicide in a group of depressed inpatients with and without an index suicide attempt. Historical cohort of 382 psychiatric inpatients with mood disorder admitted to the department of Psychiatry at the Karolinska University Hospital between 1980 and 2000 were submitted to the DST and followed up for causes of death. During the follow-up (mean 18 years), 36 suicides (9.4%) occurred, 20 of these were non-suppressors and 16 were suppressors. There was no statistically significant difference in suicide risk between the suppressors and non-suppressors for the sample as a whole. An index suicide attempt predicted suicide. In suicide attempters with mood disorder, the non-suppressor status was significantly associated with suicide indicating that HPA axis hyperactivity is a risk factor for suicide in this group. The dexamethasone suppression test may be a useful predictor within this population.  相似文献   
9.
The aim of the present study was to examine an association of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) polymorphisms G196A and C270T and the response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in major depressive disorder (MDD). The study group consisted of 119 patients consecutively admitted for ECT in the Department of Psychiatry, Tampere University Hospital. All patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV for MDD. ECT was administered three times a week with a brief pulse constant current device. The Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) was used as an outcome measure of depression. Genotyping was performed using fluorescent allele-specific TaqMan probes. No association between either G196A or C270T and the response to ECT was found in the whole population. There were no significant differences in responses between men and women or between psychotic and non-psychotic patients. However, within subgroups such as in psychotic and in late-onset depression CC genotype of C270T may predict good response. BDNF may not be associated with response to ECT in general, but some association in subgroups may exist.  相似文献   
10.
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether MR-detectable alterations of choline-containing compounds in two key neural systems involved in major depression disorder namely the hippocampus and the basal ganglia can be detected. Multislice proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging was applied in 11 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and ten matched healthy subjects. Voxels were selected from the left and right side of the hippocampus and the putamen. Significantly lower choline-containing compounds in the hippocampus and significantly higher choline-containing compounds in the putamen of patients with MDD compared to healthy subjects were found. No significant differences were found for the other metabolites in the two regions evaluated. Abnormal levels of choline-containing compounds most likely reflect altered membrane phospholipid metabolism. A reduced level in the hippocampus and an increased level in the putamen suggest regionally opponent membrane abnormalities. Presented in part at the 13th annual meeting of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Miami 2005.  相似文献   
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