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1.
The impact of synapsins on synaptic plasticity and cognitive behaviors   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
Synapsins are a family of phosphoproteins specifically associated with the cytoplasmic surface of the synaptic vesicle membrane, appearing to regulate neurotransmitter release, the formation and maintenance of synaptic contacts.They could induce the change of the synaptic plasticity to regulate various adaptation reactions, and change the cognitive behaviors. So we presume that if some cognitive behavior are damaged, synapsins would be changed as well. This gives us a new recognition of better diagnosis and therapy of cognitive disorder desease.  相似文献   
2.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) type 15 is an autosomal recessive (AR) form of complicated HSP mainly characterized by slowly progressive spastic paraplegia, mental retardation, intellectual deterioration, maculopathy, distal amyotrophy, and mild cerebellar signs that has been associated with the Kjellin syndrome. The locus for this form of HSP, designated SPG15, was mapped to an interval of 19 cM on chromosome 14q22-q24 in two Irish families. We performed a clinical-genetic study of this form of HSP on 147 individuals (64 of whom were affected) from 20 families with AR-HSP. A genome-wide scan was performed in three large consanguineous families of Arab origin after exclusion of linkage to several known loci for AR-HSP (SPG5, SPG7, SPG21, SPG24, SPG28, and SPG30). The 17 other AR-HSP families were tested for linkage to the SPG15 locus. Only the three large consanguineous families showed evidence of linkage to the SPG15 locus (2.4 > Z (max) > 4.3). Recombinations in these families reduced the candidate region from approximately 16 to approximately 5 Mbases. Among the approximately 50 genes assigned to this locus, two were good candidates by their functions (GPHN and SLC8A3), but their coding exons and untranslated regions (UTRs) were excluded by direct sequencing. Patients had spastic paraplegia associated with cognitive impairment, mild cerebellar signs, and axonal neuropathy, as well as a thin corpus callosum in one family. The ages at onset ranged from 10 to 19 years. Our study highlights the phenotypic heterogeneity of SPG15 in which mental retardation or cognitive deterioration, but not all other signs of Kjellin syndrome, are associated with HSP and significantly reduces the SPG15 locus.  相似文献   
3.
Compound S 17092 is a potent and selective inhibitor of prolyl endopeptidase (EC 3.4.21.26, PEP) that may be of therapeutic value for the treatment of memory impairment associated with neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of S 17092 on the catabolism of the promnesic neuropeptides thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) in the rat brain. In vitro, bacterial PEP hydrolysed both TRH and AVP, and the breakdown of the two peptides was almost completely prevented by 10(-5) M S 17092. In vivo, a single oral administration of S 17092 provoked a significant increase in TRH-like immunoreactivity (TRH-LI) in the cerebral cortex (+63% for a 10 mg/kg dose and +72% for a 30 mg/kg dose), as well as AVP-LI in the hippocampus (+54% for a 30 mg/kg dose), but did not affect TRH-LI in the amygdala nor AVP-LI in the cerebral cortex. Chronic administration of S 17092 (10 or 30 mg/kg daily) lead to a significant increase in THR-LI in the cerebral cortex (+55% and +56%, respectively), but did not modify AVP-LI in the hippocampus, nor in the cerebral cortex. These results show that the selective PEP inhibitor S 17092 increases TRH and AVP content in discrete regions of the rat brain. The present data suggest that the promnesic and antiamnesic effects of S 17092 can be accounted for, at least in part, by blockage of AVP and TRH degradation by PEP.  相似文献   
4.
BACKGROUND: Few data are available on the impact of applying different concepts to define cognitive impairment among nonagenarians and centenarians. This study explored the occurrence of four broadly used concepts in an over 90-year-old population. DESIGN/METHODS: We examined a community-based cohort of 34 people with a mean age (+/- S.D.) of 96.4 (+/- 3.9) years, living in Bologna (Italy). We calculated the proportion of subjects that was given a diagnosis of cognitive impairment according to the following four commonly used concepts: Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), Age-Associated Memory Impairment (AAMI), Cognitive Impairment, No Dementia (CIND), and Questionable Dementia stage of the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR 0.5). RESULTS: The proportion of subjects with cognitive impairment varied from 5.9%, according to CIND, to 32.4%, according to MCI. The four concepts identified different groups of subjects as having cognitive impairment, and no subject was given a diagnosis of cognitive impairment according to all four concepts. CONCLUSION: Commonly used criteria for diagnosis of cognitive impairment can differ by a factor of five in the number of subjects they classified as impaired. Such disagreement has serious implications for prevention, as people with a mild cognitive impairment may be a suitable target group for interventions before the development of dementia.  相似文献   
5.
Abstract Objective To compare the cognitive and behavioural effects of unilateral pallidotomy and bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation. Methods After baseline examination 34 patients were randomly assigned to unilateral pallidotomy (4 left-sided, 10 right-sided) or bilateral STN stimulation (n=20). At baseline and six and twelve months after surgery we administered neuropsychological tests of language, memory, visuospatial function, mental speed and executive functions. Also a depression rating scale, and self and proxy ratings of memory and dysexecutive symptoms were administered. Results Six months after surgery, the STN group and the pallidotomy group differed significantly in change from baseline in number of errors on two tests of executive functioning. After 12 months the STN group reported less positive affect compared with baseline than the pallidotomy group. One patient in the STN group showed an overall cognitive deterioration due to complications. Conclusions Although we need larger groups to draw firm conclusions, our results suggest that bilateral STN stimulation has slightly more negative effects on executive functioning than unilateral pallidotomy.  相似文献   
6.
Abstract. Although transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) by definition do not cause lasting neurological deficits, cognitive impairment has been suggested in patients with carotid artery disease who have suffered from a TIA. The purpose of our study was to assess whether patients with carotid artery disease and TIAs are cognitively impaired, to describe the frequency, nature and severity of this impairment, and to search for associated patient characteristics.Thirty-nine consecutive patients with carotid occlusion and ipsilateral cerebral or retinal TIAs, and 46 healthy controls underwent extensive neuropsychological assessment. Performances were compared group-wise with analysis of variance. In addition, the presence of cognitive impairment in the individual patient was determined. Associations between illness characteristics and cognitive impairment were explored with regression analysis.Fifty-four percent of patients were cognitively impaired. Cognitive deficits were non-specific in nature and mild in severity. Impairment occurred also in patients with isolated retinal symptoms and in those without visible ischemic brain lesions on MRI. Neither the presence of any vascular risk factor, the side of the symptomatic carotid occlusion, the uni- or bilaterality of carotid occlusion, nor the number of cerebral ischemic lesions were predictors of cognitive impairment.We conclude that about half of the patients with carotid artery occlusion and ipsilateral TIAs are cognitively impaired. The presence of cognitive deficits in patients with isolated retinal symptoms and in those without cerebral ischemic lesions on MRI argues against an exclusive role for structural brain damage in the pathogenesis of these deficits.  相似文献   
7.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore predictive factors of the length of hospital stay at the acute stage of right hemisphere stroke. Special attention was paid to the possible role of anosognosia for hemiparesis and anosognosia for neglect in this prediction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A consecutive series of 57 patients having their first right hemisphere stroke were examined at the acute phase. Forty-nine patients were included in this study and followed-up for 12 months. The examinations were conducted within 2 weeks of onset. The outcome variable was the time (days) from stroke to discharge to home. The predictors were age, gender, size of infarct, neglect, hemiparesis, verbal memory, unawareness of illness, anosognosia for neglect, anosognosia for hemiparesis and presence of a relative at home. RESULTS: Hemiparesis and unawareness of illness lengthened the duration of the hospital stay, the presence of a relative reduced it. Neglect was the best single predictor of poor outcome, but it had no additional value in the combination of the three predictors above. Neither anosognosia for hemiparesis nor anosognosia for neglect were important predictors. CONCLUSION: Hemiparesis, unawareness of illness and presence of a relative at home were the best predictors of the time from right hemisphere stroke to discharge to home.  相似文献   
8.
We present a systematic review of the literature on the prevalence, nature, severity, course, and causes of cognitive deficits in patients with occlusive disease of the carotid artery prior to surgery (if surgery was under discussion). Searches were carried out on Medline and Psychlit from 1980 to 1999 using neurovascular and psychological index terms, and papers and books were checked for further references. Studies describing neuropsychological assessment of groups of patients with carotid obstruction were included. Eighteen studies were found. We extracted from the papers data on study design, demographic characteristics of patients, clinical diagnosis, carotid obstruction, cerebral imaging, time interval between ischemic episode and neuropsychological assessment, neuropsychological asessment procedures, integration and interpretation of test performances, and conclusions of authors. Fourteen studies concluded that there are cognitive deficits both in patients with symptomatic and in those with asymptomatic carotid obstruction; four studies denied cognitive impairment. There were no differences in patient characteristics, study design, or neuropsychological assessment procedures between the 14 studies that found deficits and the 4 that did not. There are indications for a mild, diffuse, detrimental effect of carotid occlusive disease on cognitive functioning. However, methodological problems prevent a definitive conclusion. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and to ascertain the neurovascular risk factors for and the natural course of cognitive impairment in patients with carotid occlusive disease. Received: 12 July 1999/Received in revised form: 10 November 1999/Accepted: 26 January 2000  相似文献   
9.
不同记忆测验识别轻度认知损害的差异   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
目的分析不同的记忆测验对于轻度认知损害(MCI)的识别力的差异。方法2004年5月至2006年5月就诊于本院神经内科记忆障碍门诊的被试共712例,除了客观记忆指标,其余要求均符合MCI入组标准的有329例。全部入组者完成听觉词语学习测验(AVLT)、逻辑记忆测验(LM)、Rey-Osterrieth复杂图形测验(CFT)及MMSE、画钟测验、五点测验、言语流畅性测验、Stroop色词测验、连线测验、临床痴呆评定量表。结果对于MCI的识别率AVLT-Ⅱ(51%)〉AVLT-Ⅰ(31%)〉CFT回忆(27%)〉LM-Ⅰ(21%)=LM-Ⅱ(21%)。AVLT-Ⅱ与LM-Ⅱ均〉划界分者,为主观认知缺损(SCI)组,占47%(155/329);AVLT-Ⅱ与LM-Ⅱ均≤划界分者,为确定MCI组,占19%(63/329);AVLT-Ⅱ与LM-Ⅱ不一致,其中AVLT-Ⅱ≤划界分而LM-Ⅱ〉划界分者,为分歧组,占32%(104/329)。通过对各领域神经心理测验结果和临床表现进行比较,分歧组明显不同于SCI组,而是接近于确定MCI组,也就是说,分歧组是认知功能损害相对较轻的MCI。结论不同的情景记忆测验对于MCI的识别能力存在巨大的差异。AVLT延迟回忆最敏感,可以作为MCI“记忆减退的客观证据”。  相似文献   
10.
阿尔茨海默病患者的执行功能障碍   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
目的了解阿尔茨海默病(A lzhe im er d isease,AD)患者执行功能损害状况及对于生活能力的影响,探讨执行功能障碍与记忆等AD常见认知功能损害的相关性。方法运用神经心理学测验的方法对40例AD患者及30例轻度认知功能损害(m ild cogn itive impairm ent,MC I)患者进行执行功能、记忆及其他认知功能检查,同时进行生活能力评定。另外选择40名健康老人作对照。结果AD组的执行功能测验成绩均显著低于健康对照组(P<0.01),其中额叶功能评定量表(FAB)(5.29±2.47)分,执行性画钟作业(CLOX1)(4.63±3.56)分,Stroop测验错误次数(Stroop1)(14.17±8.99)分,词语流畅性测验(RVR)(17.56±10.51)分。除Stroop测验反应时间(Stroop2)外,MC I组的其他执行功能测验成绩显著低于健康对照组(P<0.05),其中FAB为(7.67±2.44)分,CLOX1为(7.86±3.78)分,Stroop1为(7.21±8.07)分,RVR为(30.86±8.38)分。用多元逐步回归方法分析不同认知功能对生活能力的影响,结果为反映执行功能的FAB测验成绩处于第一位,独立与操作性日常生活能力(IADL)相关(β=-0.778,t=-7.079,P<0.01)。各项执行功能测验与年龄相关性不明显(r=0.026~0.250,P>0.05),与简易精神状态量表(MMSE)、记忆测验成绩相关性好(r=0.438~0.786,P<0.01)。结论AD患者具有明显的执行功能障碍;在尚未到达痴呆水平的MC I阶段也可发现执行功能损害。执行功能和整体认知功能及记忆等认知域功能具有良好的相关性。AD患者的执行功能障碍是导致生活能力下降的重要因素。  相似文献   
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