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1.
In a prospective study, the attachment style, home-leaving age, length of time in residential care, and behavioral problems among Israeli residential care children (N = 68), were studied. Data analyses showed that children removed from their homes at a later age suffered from higher levels of anxiety, depression and social problems compared to children taken from their homes at the age of 7 or less. It was also found that a prolonged stay (over 2 years) in residential care was related to higher levels of anxiety and depression. An interaction effect of a child’s attachment style and home-leaving age was found in the child’s level of aggressive behavior.  相似文献   
2.
In this study we compared 33 IQ and age matched pairs of individuals with Aspergers Disorder (ASP) and high functioning autism (HFA) on measures of repetitive behavior. On the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R), the ASP and HFA groups showed no differences in RBS-R Intensity score (severity) score or Frequency score (number of problems present). This suggests that the two groups are similar with respect to␣the intensity or severity of repetitive behaviors and the presence of repetitive behaviors. At the item level there were no differences on scales typically associated with autism (Stereotyped Behavior) and ASP (Restricted Interests). Similarly, there were no differences between the groups on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Stereotypy scale. These findings add to the body of literature showing that HFA and ASP fail to differ with respect to repetitive behaviors. The implications of the findings for neurobiologic and genetic studies are discussed.  相似文献   
3.
In order to recognize behavioral patterns in children and adolescents at risk for developing bipolar disorder, this study examined Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) profiles of bipolar offspring both with (BD group) and without (“at-risk” or AR group) bipolar disorder themselves. The BD youth had three CBCL subscale T scores ≥70 (attention problems, delinquent behavior, and aggression) and scored significantly higher than healthy comparison youth on all CBCL subscales. AR youth did not have any T scores ≥70; however, they scored higher than healthy comparisons in the anxiety/depression, attention problems, aggression, and withdrawal subscales. AR and BD youth differed significantly on all scales except somatic complaints and anxiety/depression.  相似文献   
4.
Objective This study examined conflict behavior in naturalistic preschool settings to better understand the role of non-affiliative behavior and language in conflict management. Method Free-play at preschool was filmed among 20 boys with typically developing language (TL) and among 11 boys with Language Impairment (LI); the boys 4–7 years old. Conflict behavior was coded and analyzed with a validated system. Post-conflict non-affiliative behavior (aggression and withdrawal) displays, and the links between the displays and reconciliation (i.e., former opponents exchange friendly behavioral shortly after conflict termination) was examined. Results Group comparisons revealed boys with LI displayed aggression in a smaller share of conflicts, but exhibited ‹activewithdrawal (left the room), in a larger conflict share. Boys with TL overcame aggression (more common TL behavior) and after reconciled, to a greater extent than the boys with LI after active withdrawal (more common LI behavior). Also, after reciprocal or only verbal aggression, boys with LI reconciled to a lesser extent than boys with TL. Conclusions The boys with LI demonstrated difficulties confronting conflict management, as well as concluding emotionally heightened and aggressive behavioral turns.  相似文献   
5.
The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview, psychological distress with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and eating psychopathology with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), and the Bulimic Investigatory Test Edinburgh (BITE). Controlling the effect of initial substance use problems, psychological distress predicted later reported substance use problems in males. Girls with an initial score above the cut-off point on the GHQ were two times more likely to be at risk of having an eating disorder 2 years later. Therefore, psychological distress might take different developmental pathways in males and females, leading toward eating problems in the latter versus substance use in the former.  相似文献   
6.
Archival data from a survey of parent observations was used to determine the prevalence of social and behavioral problems in children with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). Parent observations were surveyed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for 61 children with ACC who were selected from the archive based on criteria of motor development suggesting a relatively high general level of functioning. Younger children with ACC (ages 2–5) were rated as primarily having problems with sleep. Older children with ACC (ages 6–11) manifested problems in attention, social function, thought, and somatic complaints. The older children with ACC were also compared to CBCL data from 52 children with autism who were selected from a previous study. Children with ACC were generally less impaired than children with autism on nearly all scales, with significantly less severe problems in the areas of attention, anxiety/depression, social function, and unusual thoughts. A further questionnaire related to diagnostic criteria for autism indicated that some children with ACC had traits that are among those that contribute to the diagnosis of autism within the domains of social interaction and social communication, but fewer who manifest repetitive and restricted behaviors.  相似文献   
7.
As children with emotional or behavioral problems often fail to receive the treatment available to them, this study examined (1) the degree of perceived need (PN) among Korean parents regarding mental health services for their children, (2) the factors associated with such perceptions, (3) the degree to which Korean parents actually engage mental health services for their children, and (4) the factors associated with such use. To determine the degrees of PN and actual use, 1,058 children aged between 9 and 12 years were asked to complete the Children’s Depression Inventory, while their parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. About 11.4% of the parents demonstrated PN, compared to 2.7% who actually engaged child mental health services. While most of the CBCL factors were associated with PN, the child’s self-report significantly affected the perception as well. The attention problem score in the CBCL was the only factor that strongly corresponded to the actual use of services in Korea, a country where academic achievement is considered paramount, which suggests that cultural forces may play a powerful role in determining parents’ decisions regarding child mental health care.  相似文献   
8.
This study examined the factor structure and reliability of a brief but comprehensive measure, the adolescent risk inventory (ARI), designed to assess adolescent risk behaviors and attitudes. Measures assessing demographics and risk behaviors were administered to 134 youth (ages 12–19) in psychiatric treatment. A confirmatory factor analysis of the four attitude scales (HIV Anxiety, HIV Prevention Self-Efficacy, General Distress, and General Risk) revealed excellent goodness of fit statistics. Exploratory factor analysis of the behavior items revealed three behavior factors (Sex Risk, Abuse/Self-Harm, and Acting Out). The preliminary analysis suggested that all subscales had reasonable internal consistency reliability and appeared to be independent measures, rather than part of a single unitary construct. Differences emerged based on gender, sexual activity status, and trauma history. Exploratory regression analyses revealed that, even when controlling for demographic factors and sex risk attitudes (e.g., HIV Prevention Self-Efficacy), Abuse/self-harm behaviors were highly significantly predictive of sex risk. These analyses suggest that the ARI can be useful in quickly identifying the broad range of risk behaviors found among adolescents with psychiatric disorders.  相似文献   
9.
In structured interviews with 96 women with severe mental illness, nearly two-thirds had not used condoms during sexual intercourse in the past 3 months, more than two-thirds had sex with multiple partners, and almost one-third had been treated for a sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the past year. Women who reported fewer sexual risk context factors, such as having sex with someone the participant did not know or transactional sex, had fewer sexual partners. Larger social support networks were associated with less frequent sex after drug use. In turn, women who less often had sex after using drugs had unprotected intercourse less frequently. Mary E. Randolph, Steven D. Pinkerton, Anton M. Somlai, Jeffrey A. Kelly, Timothy L. McAuliffe, and Kristin Hackl are affiliated with Center for AIDS Intervention Research, Department of Psychiatry & Behavioural Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53202, USA. Richard H. Gibson is affiliated with Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Milwaukee, WI USA.  相似文献   
10.
Persons with severe mental illness (SMI) are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. This study examined multivariate correlates of sexual risk among 152 adults with SMI receiving outpatient psychiatric treatment. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. The majority was sexually active (65%), and many reported unprotected intercourse (73%), multiple partners (45%), and sex trading (21%) in the past year. Logistic regression models found that sexual behaviors were differentially associated with non-psychotic disorder, psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse, childhood sexual abuse, romantic partnership, and social support (all ps < .05). Findings underscore the need for targeted HIV prevention interventions that address psychiatric and psychosocial risk factors. Christina S. Meade is a Research Fellow at Harvard Medical School, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA. Kathleen J. Sikkema is an Associate Professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, CT.  相似文献   
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