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1.
The impairment of the mesostriatal dopaminergic system has been considered responsible for motor and affective disturbances associated with aging and a risk factor for Parkinson's disease. However, the basic mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still unknown. Here we used biochemical, molecular and morphological techniques directed at detecting flaws in the dopamine synthesis route and signs of dopaminergic degeneration in the rat mesostriatal system during normal aging. We found two different age-related processes. One is characterized by a dopa decarboxylase decrease, and involves both the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic compartments, and is responsible for a moderate dopamine loss in the dorsal striatum, where other parameters of dopamine synthesis are not affected. The other is characterized by axonal degeneration with aggregation of phosphorylated forms of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and amyloid precursor protein in degenerate terminals, and alpha-synuclein in their original somata. This process is restricted to mesolimbic regions and is responsible for the decline of TH activity and l-dopa levels and the greater decrease in dopamine levels in this compartment. These findings suggest that both the nigrostriatal and the mesolimbic systems are vulnerable to aging, but in contrast to what occurs in Parkinson's disease, the mesolimbic system is more vulnerable to aging than the nigrostriatal one.  相似文献   
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease, with clinical features of tremor, muscular rigidity and akinesia, occurring as a result of midbrain dopamine loss. The search for treatments has relied heavily on animal models of the disorder. The use of monkey models of PD plays a distinct role in the development and assessment of novel treatments. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a popular New World monkey used in the search for new treatments. These monkeys are easy to handle and survive well in captivity. This review examines the advantages of using marmoset monkeys in PD research and examines the different models available with reference to their use in pre-clinical assessment for novel therapeutic treatments. The most common models involve the administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Recently, selective cerebral transgenic over-expression of alpha-synuclein has also been attempted in marmosets as a potential model for PD. Each model has its advantages. The MPTP-based model in marmosets resembles the disease with regards to the neuroanatomy of neurotransmitter loss; the unilateral application of 6-OHDA allows for the assessment of more complex sensorimotor deficits due to the presence of an intact 'control' side; the over-expression of alpha-synuclein in the midbrain results in the slow onset of behavioural symptoms allowing for a pre-symptomatic time window. The appropriateness of each of these marmoset models for the assessment of treatments depends on several factors including the experimental aim of the study and whether emphasis is placed on the analysis of behavioural deficits.  相似文献   
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Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) is a spontaneously occurring progressive disease affecting aged horses and ponies. The pathogenesis of PPID is poorly understood, but the available evidence supports a loss of dopaminergic inhibition of the melanotropes of the pars intermedia. Horses with PPID have increased plasma concentrations of pars intermedia pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides that decrease in response to dopamine or dopamine agonist administration. Dopamine and dopamine metabolite concentrations are decreased in the pars intermedia of affected horses compared to age-matched control horses. Horses with disease that are treated with the dopamine agonist pergolide show improvement in clinical signs and normalisation of diagnostic test results. In the present study, immunohistochemical evaluation of pituitary and hypothalamic tissue demonstrated reduced tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in affected horses compared to age-matched and young controls, supporting the role of dopaminergic neurodegeneration in PPID. In addition, immunohistochemical evaluation revealed an increase in the oxidative stress marker, 3-nitrotyrosine and in nerve terminal protein, alpha-synuclein that colocalised in the pars intermedia of horses with disease. These findings suggest a role for nitration of overexpressed alpha-synuclein in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration in PPID.  相似文献   
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Chronic oxidative stress has been linked to the neurodegenerative changes characteristic of Parkinson's disease, particularly alpha-synuclein accumulation and aggregation. However, it remains contentious whether these alpha-synuclein changes are cytotoxic or neuroprotective. The current study utilised long-term primary neural culture techniques with antioxidant free media to study the cellular response to chronic oxidative stress. Cells maintained in antioxidant free media were exquisitely more vulnerable to acute exposure to hydrogen peroxide, yet exposure of up to 10 days in antioxidant free media did not lead to morphological alterations in neurones or glia. However, a subpopulation of neurones demonstrated a significant increase in the level of alpha-synuclein expressed within the cell body and at synaptic sites. This subset of neurones was also more resistant to apoptotic changes following exposure to antioxidant free media relative to other neurones. These data indicate that increased alpha-synuclein content is associated with neuroprotection from relatively low levels of oxidative stress.  相似文献   
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the polymerization of wild-type (WT) or mutant alpha-synuclein (AS) into aggregates and fibrils, which are observed as Lewy bodies (LBs) and Lewy neurites (LNs) in PD patients. However, inability to demonstrate aggregation in many cell culture systems is a major drawback for effective in vitro modeling of AS aggregation. Utilizing PCR-based cloning approach, we generated A30P, A53T, and the recently reported E46K encoding mutation in the KTKEGV repeat region of AS gene. While cloning E46K mutant, a glycine deletion mutation (E46KDeltaG) adjacent to the intended lysine mutation was serendipitously generated. Expression of mutant constructs and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged mutant constructs in catecholaminergic SH-SY5Y (5Y) cells revealed 40% of AS-E46KDeltaG and 18% of AS-E46K transfected cells formed aggregates as compared to 12% in AS-A53T, 6% in AS-WT, and 2% in AS-A30P transfected cells. Western blot analysis demonstrated the formation of high molecular weight AS aggregates. Electron microscopic analysis of 5Y cells expressing the E46K and E46KDeltaG mutants demonstrated two distinct kinds of inclusions: Type I, which showed dense granular profile; and Type II, which were largely membranous vacuolar inclusions without granular material. These two inclusions are reminiscent of Lewy bodies and pale bodies observed in PD postmortem brain samples. Our results demonstrate that mutations in 4th KTKEGV repeat lead to higher propensity of aggregation of AS compared to other mutants.  相似文献   
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Immunohistochemistry for alpha-synuclein has become the histological technique of choice for the diagnosis for Parkinson's disease, Dementia with Lewy bodies and Multiple System Atrophy (http://www.ICDNS.org). Nevertheless, no standardised protocol has been proposed. We have reviewed 242 of the 270 studies published until June 2005 that mentioned immunohistochemistry for anti-alpha synuclein on human tissue and we found that only 75 (31%) used commercial antibodies. We also noted that protocols, particularly dilution and antigen unmasking, varied between studies, even when the same antibody was employed. In order to establish a standardised protocol for alpha-synuclein immunohistochemistry, which can be applied in diagnostic neuropathology we tested seven commercial monoclonal antibodies in brains of subjects with Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, multiple sclerosis with incidental Lewy bodies and aged-matched normal brain and determined for each antibody the best suited protocol for antigen unmasking. We evaluated the intensity of immunolabelling in Lewy bodies, neuropil threads, dendrites, pre-synaptic terminals, granular cytoplasmic positivity, peri-axonal positivity, glial inclusions and non-specific immunolabelling. Although our results showed that all the antibodies detected alpha-synuclein inclusions, differences were noted between antibodies, particularly with regard to the detection of glial inclusions. From our study, the best antibodies of the seven tested appeared to be those directed against amino acids 116-131 and 15-123 and we suggest them to be used in routine diagnostic practice for alpha-synucleinopathies.  相似文献   
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder and is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra compacta. alpha-Synuclein is strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of PD because aggregated alpha-synuclein accumulates in the brains of subjects with PD, mutations in alpha-synuclein cause familial PD, and overexpressing mutant human alpha-synuclein (A30P or A53T) causes degenerative disease in mice or drosophila. The pathophysiology of PD is poorly understood, but increasing evidence implicates mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. To understand how mutations in alpha-synuclein contribute to the pathophysiology of PD, we undertook a proteomic analysis of transgenic mice overexpressing A30P alpha-synuclein to investigate which proteins are oxidized. We observed more than twofold selective increases in specific carbonyl levels of three metabolic proteins in brains of symptomatic A30P alpha-synuclein mice: carbonic anhydrase 2 (Car2), alpha-enolase (Eno1), and lactate dehydrogenase 2 (Ldh2). Analysis of the activities of these proteins demonstrates decreased functions of these oxidatively modified proteins in brains from the A30P compared to control mice. Our findings suggest that proteins associated with impaired energy metabolism and mitochondria are particularly prone to oxidative stress associated with A30P-mutant alpha-synuclein.  相似文献   
9.
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is characterized by the widespread presence of Lewy bodies (LBs) in the brain. alpha-Synuclein, the main component of LBs, is expressed as two main isoforms (112 and 140), but little is known about their differential expression in the brain. We compared alpha-synuclein 112 and alpha-synuclein 140 expression levels in the prefrontal cortices of six DLB patients, eight Alzheimer disease (AD) patients, and six control subjects. Relative alpha-synuclein 112 and alpha-synuclein 140 expression levels were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction with competimer technology using a LightCycler System. Whereas total alpha-synuclein levels were just marginally elevated in DLB in comparison with the other groups, alpha-synuclein 112 was seen to be markedly increased in DLB compared with AD cases and controls. In contrast, alpha-synuclein 140 levels were significantly diminished in both neurodegenerative disorders in comparison with controls. These results show differential overexpression of alpha-synuclein 112 in DLB, a finding that could be of importance in DLB pathogenesis.  相似文献   
10.
Mutations in the alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) gene are responsible for a rare familial parkinsonism syndrome, a finding that has led to extensive characterization of altered alpha-syn structure in sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. We report here the immunohistochemical, biochemical and ultrastructural characterization of alpha-syn neuropathology in a case of familial PD with the A53T alpha-syn gene mutation. Insoluble filamentous alpha-syn lesions were detected in almost all brain regions examined and as in sporadic PD, we observed the accumulation of insoluble nitrated alpha-syn in this familial disorder. Significant accumulations of filamentous insoluble tau protein also were detected in some brain regions of this patient, suggesting a role for A53T mutant alpha-syn in tau fibrillization. Indeed, in vitro studies of tau and alpha-syn fibrillization showed that the A53T mutation accelerated alpha-syn fibril formation, initiated tau assembly into filaments and synergistically enhanced fibrillization of both tau and alpha-syn. Our data implicate fibrillization of alpha-syn and tau in the pathogenesis of PD, and suggest that distinct amyloidogenic proteins may cross-seed each other in neurodegenerative diseases.  相似文献   
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