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1.
向列相液晶中强非局域空间光孤子传输的理论研究   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4       下载免费PDF全文
龙学文  胡巍  张涛  郭旗  兰胜  高喜存 《物理学报》2007,56(3):1397-1403
对向列相液晶中非局域空间孤子的传输进行了理论研究.基于非线性液晶孤子传输方程,采用Gauss形式的试探解,不仅得到了空间孤子的解析解,而且还在临界功率附近得到了呼吸子的解析解.通过数值模拟证明我们的结果比Conti和Assanto等人的结果更合理.同时,对液晶中的非局域孤子模型和Snyder等提出的强非局域孤子模型进行了全面的比较.  相似文献   
2.
Dixon S  Palmer SB 《Ultrasonics》2004,42(10):1129-1136
This paper describes a new type of non-contact electromagnetic transducer (EMAT) that can be used to generate both Lamb and Rayleigh waves on metal samples. The generated waves are wideband and low frequency with a dominant frequency content centred at approximately 200 kHz extending to around 500 kHz. The transducers have been used on both aluminium and steel, but operate more efficiently on aluminium due to its lower electrical resistance and density when compared to steel.  相似文献   
3.
Shear horizontal (SH) ultrasound guided waves are being used in an increasing number of non-destructive testing (NDT) applications. One advantage SH waves have over some wave types, is their ability to propagate around curved surfaces with little energy loss; to understand the geometries around which they could propagate, the wave reflection must be quantified. A 0.83 mm thick aluminium sheet was placed in a bending machine, and a shallow bend was introduced. Periodically-poled magnet (PPM) electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs), for emission and reception of SH waves, were placed on the same side of the bend, so that reflected waves were received. Additional bending of the sheet demonstrated a clear relationship between bend angles and the reflected signal. Models suggest that the reflection is a linear superposition of the reflections from each bend segment, such that sharp turns lead to a larger peak-to-peak amplitude, in part due to increased phase coherence.  相似文献   
4.
Recent improvements in tomographic reconstruction techniques generated a renewed interest in short-range ultrasonic guided wave inspection for real-time monitoring of internal corrosion and erosion in pipes and other plate-like structures. Emerging evidence suggests that in most cases the fundamental asymmetric A0 mode holds a distinct advantage over the earlier market leader fundamental symmetric S0 mode. Most existing A0 mode inspections operate at relatively low inspection frequencies where the mode is highly dispersive therefore very sensitive to variations in wall thickness. This paper examines the potential advantages of increasing the inspection frequency to the so-called constant group velocity (CGV) point where the group velocity remains essentially constant over a wide range of wall thickness variation, but the phase velocity is still dispersive enough to allow accurate wall thickness assessment from phase angle measurements. This paper shows that in the CGV region the crucial issue of temperature correction becomes especially simple, which is particularly beneficial when higher-order helical modes are also exploited for tomography. One disadvantage of working at such relatively high inspection frequency is that, as the slower A0 mode becomes faster and less dispersive, the competing faster S0 mode becomes slower and more dispersive. At higher inspection frequencies these modes cannot be separated any longer based on their vibration polarization only, which is mostly tangential for the S0 mode while mostly normal for the A0 at low frequencies, as the two modes become more similar as the frequency increases. Therefore, we propose a novel method for suppressing the unwanted S0 mode based on the Poisson effect of the material by optimizing the angle of inclination of the equivalent transduction force of the Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs) used for generation and detection purposes.  相似文献   
5.
Electro-magnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) are intended as non-contact and non-destructive ultrasound transducers for metallic material. The transmitted intensities from EMATS are modest, particularly at notable lift off distances. Some time ago a concept for a “coil only EMAT” was presented, without static magnetic field. In this contribution, such compact “coil only EMATs” with effective areas of 1–5 cm2 were driven to excessive power levels at MHz frequencies, using pulsed power technologies. RF induction currents of 10 kA and tens of Megawatts are applied. With increasing power the electroacoustic conversion efficiency also increases. The total effect is of second order or quadratic, therefore non-linear and progressive, and yields strong ultrasound signals up to kW/cm2 at MHz frequencies in the metal. Even at considerable lift off distances (cm) the ultrasound can be readily detected. Test materials are aluminum, ferromagnetic steel and stainless steel (non-ferromagnetic). Thereby, most metal types are represented. The technique is compared experimentally with other non-contact methods: laser pulse induced ultrasound and spark induced ultrasound, both damaging to the test object’s surface. At small lift off distances, the intensity from this EMAT concept clearly outperforms the laser pulses or heavy spark impacts.  相似文献   
6.
Kawashima K 《Ultrasonics》2012,52(2):287-293
An inverse spectral procedure was applied to reconstruct the acoustic impedance profile along the thickness direction of a plate using its thickness resonance frequencies, density and thickness. For a successful reconstruction, the material-property profile must be symmetric about the mid-plane of the plate. Several cases of numerical simulations, including plates with a few layers and with a high number of layers are described. The calculated resonance frequencies were used to reconstruct the acoustic impedance profile, a process that was successful for all cases. We assume that a plate with a high number of layers, each with a different but constant acoustic impedance, simulates a plate with a smoothly varying acoustic impedance profile. It can be concluded that such a plate, which generates small, virtually undetectable, internally reflected waves, can also be reconstructed. In the special case of a plate of unknown thickness and unknown but constant density, the method is still useful, because a relative variation of the material property can be reconstructed using only the resonance frequencies. An experiment using a resonance-mode electromagnetic acoustic transducer (resonance-mode EMAT) is also described. EMAT is a non-contact ultrasonic method that can measure thickness resonance frequencies, making it appropriate for this method. Some examples of applications are measurement of the temperature profile inside a rolled metal sheet, measurement of a clad metal plate, and monitoring of a metal casting.  相似文献   
7.
A pulsed Nd:YAG laser with an approximately Gaussian beam shape is directed onto the surface of an aluminium sheet at an energy density below which damage by laser ablation occurs, generating Lamb waves in the sheet. The laser beam is raster scanned across the surface of the sample. The Lamb waves travel radially outwards from the generation point and are detected some distance away by an electromagnetic acoustic transducer with sensitivity to in-plane displacements of the sheet. A number of static EMATs are located around the edges of the sheet, some distance from the generation point. The presence of a crack-like defect on the sheet can be detected by either a sudden change in the ultrasonic waveform or by an enhancement in the frequency content of the waveform when the laser beam illuminates directly onto the crack.  相似文献   
8.
This paper presents a new method of improving the ultrasonic signal amplitude from a meander line EMAT by using soft magnetic alloy ribbon (Fe60Ni10V10B20) as a magnetic flux concentrator (MFC). The flux concentrator is a thin soft amorphous magnetic material (Fe60Ni10V10B20) which is very sensitive to a small flux change. The MFC is used with the EMAT to improve the signal amplitude and it was observed that the peak signal amplitude increases by a factor of two compared to the signal without MFC. Two dimensional numerical models have been developed for the EMAT with MFC to quantify the improvement of the received signal amplitudes. Model calculations and experiments have been carried out for a wide range of ultrasonic frequencies (500 kHz-1 MHz) in different materials.  相似文献   
9.
In spite of many advances in analytical and numerical modeling techniques for solving different engineering problems, an efficient solution technique for wave propagation modeling of an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) system is still missing. Distributed point source method (DPSM) is a newly developed semi-analytical technique developed since 2000 by Placko and Kundu (2007) [12] that is very powerful and straightforward for solving various engineering problems, including acoustic and electromagnetic modeling problems. In this study DPSM has been employed to model the Lorentz type EMAT with a meander line and flat spiral type coil. The problem of wave propagation has been solved and eddy currents and Lorentz forces have been calculated. The displacement field has been obtained as well. While modeling the Lorentz force the effect of dynamic magnetic field has been considered that most current analyses ignore. Results from this analysis have been compared with the finite element method (FEM) based predictions. It should be noted that with the current state of knowledge this problem can be solved only by FEM.  相似文献   
10.
齐英豪 《应用声学》2015,34(2):102-106
利用电磁超声探伤方法对检测火车轮表面及近表面缺陷进行实验探究,从而保证车轮质量,避免事故发生。文章介绍了火车车轮电磁超声探伤的原理和方法。根据电磁超声表面波辐射扩散角的分布情况,得出利用电磁超声表面波进行车轮踏面探伤的可行性。将制作的小巧换能器探头与便携式电磁超声探伤仪配合,能够实现对车轮的快速探伤检测。通过大量的车轮探伤实验,检出了典型车轮踏面缺陷。根据检测波形特点并结合生产工艺情况,分析得出产生缺陷的原因。研究表明:电磁超声无损检测方法能够快速、有效检出车轮踏面缺陷。  相似文献   
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