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1.
The Angolan margin is the type area for raft tectonics. New seismic data reveal the contractional buffer for this thin-skinned extension. A 200-km-long composite section from the Lower Congo Basin and Kwanza Basin illustrates a complex history of superposed deformation caused by: (1) progradation of the margin; and (2) episodic Tertiary epeirogenic uplift. Late Cretaceous tectonics was driven by a gentle slope created by thermal subsidence; extensional rafting took place updip, contractional thrusting and buckling downdip; some distal folds were possibly unroofed to form massive salt walls. Oligocene deformation was triggered by gentle kinking of the Atlantic Hinge Zone as the shelf and coastal plain rose by 2 or 3 km; relative uplift stripped Paleogene cover off the shelf, provided space for Miocene progradation, and steepened the continental slope, triggering more extension and buckling. In the Neogene, a subsalt half graben was inverted or reactivated, creating keystone faults that may have controlled the Congo Canyon; a thrust duplex of seaward-displaced salt jacked up the former abyssal plain, creating a plateau of salt 3–4 km thick on the present lower slope. The Angola Escarpment may be the toe of the Angola thrust nappe, in which a largely Cretaceous roof of gently buckled strata, was transported seawards above the thickened salt by up to 20 km.  相似文献   
2.
本文提出了安装有槽道螺旋桨的潜器的速升率计算方法。因为航速对槽道桨发出的推力和力矩大小具有很大的影响,所以在速升率计算公式中应当引入对力臂的修正项。数值计算表明,计入该项修正能显著改善装有槽道桨潜器速升率的预报值。  相似文献   
3.
We present a numerical study on the hydrodynamic performance of undulation NACA0012 foil in the near wake of D-section cylinder. Computations are conducted using unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with a moving adaptive mesh based on laminar flow. Investigations are focused on the effect of distance ratio between foil tip and centre of cylinder (L/D≤2.0) on the thrust/drag performance of foil and cylinder at various foil undulation frequency (St). We found that, foil thrust coefficient (Ct) increases considerably with the appearance of cylinder and an optimal distance exists at which Ct reaches maxima. The maximum increment is about eleven times that of its counterpart of single foil, which is obtained at St=0.23 and L/D=0.5. Our results for the cylinder drag coefficient (Cd) observed the existence of optimal parametric map, combined with various gap ratios and foil frequencies. With these parameters, insertion of an undulation foil can significantly lead to the drag reduction indicating that undulating foil could work efficiently as a passive vortex control device for cylinder drag reduction.  相似文献   
4.
The Morichito piggyback basin (MPB) is a SW-NE-oriented depocenter in the Eastern Venezuelan Foreland Basin (EVFB). This piggyback basin formed by overlying the Pirital thrust during the middle to late Miocene as a result of oblique collision between the Caribbean and South-American Plates. The MPB covers an area encompassing approximately 1000 km2 between the Serrania del Interior range and the Pirital high, which is a hanging wall uplift along the Pirital thrust that acts as a confining barrier on the southern boundary of the MPB. Previous studies have tried to address the tectonostratigraphic significance of the MPB, but new biostratigraphic information and recently acquired 3D seismic data have allowed us to expand the understanding of this basin. The MPB occupies a relatively small area of the EVFB; however, the MPB contains a valuable stratigraphic record that can be used to unveil the timing of the main deformational events that took place in the EVFB.This work presents the tectonostratigraphic evolution of the MPB by defining four tectonostratigraphic sequences (T1-T4). Each sequence was defined on the basis of integration of well logs, biostratigraphy, and seismic geomorphological interpretations. T1 (24-16 Ma) (late Oligocene to middle Miocene), which was deposited in shallow-marine environments, extends to the south of the Pirital high beyond the boundaries of the MPB. T1 is equivalent to the early foredeep stage of the EVFB, having been formed when structural deformation and uplifting were already occurring to the north on the proto-Serrania del Interior range (∼24-16 Ma) and the Pirital thrust was active (∼22 Ma). T2 (16-11 Ma) (middle to late Miocene) is composed of alluvial-fan deposits derived from the proto-Serrania del Interior range. The geometry and internal configuration of T2 indicate that during this time the basin was transitioning from an open-foreland basin to a confined piggyback basin. During deposition of T2, the Pirital fault was active as an out-of-sequence thrusting event (16-∼11 ma). T3 (late Miocene) and T4 (early Pliocene to Recent), composed of shallow-marine and fluvial deposits, were deposited in an already restricted piggyback basin. The Pirital high was already in place during deposition of T3 (∼11-9.3 ma). T3 and T4 represent the final phases of MPB infilling, when tectonic activity and subsidence were at their lowest rates. MPB sedimentary infilling dates the activity of thrusting events in the proto-Serrania del Interior (∼24-16 Ma), timing of maximum deformation associated with the Pirital out-of-sequence thrusting event (16-∼11 Ma), timing of final emplacement of the Pirital high (∼11-9.3 Ma), and the beginning of tectonic quiescence (<5.2 Ma).  相似文献   
5.
This paper presents a structural and stratigraphic analysis of the foreland-fold-belt of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin and the main conclusions about shale tectonic mechanisms in the area. The deformation of the foreland-fold-belt has been investigated analyzing the growth strata architecture preserved on the structure fold limbs. Three contractional episodes are proposed for the Eastern Venezuelan Basin: 1) Oligocene to middle Miocene, 2) late Miocene to Pliocene and 3) Pleistocene. The first episode produced contractional listric faults inside the shale and long displacement blind thrusts in the underlying Cretaceous units. The second episode produced the deformation of the Cenozoic strata into overlapping east-west-trending, convex northward anticlines that covers more than 200 kilometers in length and 40 kilometers wide, break-through normal faults product of a high sedimentary load that overcomes contraction and the formation of short-displacement blind thrusts in the underlying Cretaceous units. The last episode is related to an oblique compression and the formation of high angle extensional faults with dextral movement and NW-SE strike. The role of the shale tectonics in the evolution implies that shale deforms in two stages: 1) folding and 2) normal faulting of the crest of the anticline (Break through normal faulting). Folding controlled the sediment distribution during most of the Neogene strata, while the normal faulting of the anticlines represent basin potential for hydrocarbon. The best potential hydrocarbon plays in the basin are related to oblique-collision restricted basins and controlled by break-through normal faults and the presence of NW-SE strike faults that connect the HC source with the reservoirs. Results from this research imply that the role of sedimentation is fundamental for the overburden sand distribution and tectonic constrain of the folds.  相似文献   
6.
The Eastern Venezuelan Basin (EVB) contains one of the largest hydrocarbon accumulations in the world. Main petroleum targets are buried structures of the Monagas Fold-Thrust Belt (MFTB) which forms the northeastern edge of the EVB. The objective of this study is to integrate the seismic and well data that has been acquired over the last 10 years across the MFTB and EVB, to create an updated structural model. Three regional cross sections 60-75 km long are presented across an area of 4000 km2.Five structural domains are described: Amarilis, Furrial, Jusepín, Cotoperí and Pirital. They are characterized by thrusts and high-angle reverse faults. Structural style changes along strike are related to variations in depth of detachment levels and to the strike-slip component of the deformation. We have estimated a shortening between 43 and 59 km that increases eastward over a distance of 40 km.The evolution of the MFTB is divided in four episodes based on stratigraphic, structural and thermal maturity evidences: (1) Oligocene-early Miocene initial movement of Pirital thrust. (2) Early Miocene simultaneous movement on Pirital, Furrial and Cotoperí thrusts. (3) Middle Miocene increases in velocity and change in geometry of Pirital thrust, during an out of sequence period of thrusting. (4) Late Miocene to Holocene minor thrust activity. This evolution is consistent with the oblique convergence between the Caribbean and South American plates and the convergence between North and South America that affected Eastern Venezuela during the Cenozoic.By analyzing the along-strike variations in structural style, new exploratory opportunities have been identified. Under the Orocual and Santa Bárbara fields two untested duplex structures are proposed; they were developed during the middle Miocene. Other prospective hydrocarbon traps are associated to oblique transpressive faults that create anticline structures.  相似文献   
7.
Carbonate reservoirs in the Córdoba petroleum system (NE Mexico) passed through a multiphase deformation history complicating the petroleum geology. The area evolved from passive margin and foreland setting to Laramide fold and thrust belt (FTB) that was subsequently buried below the Tertiary-Quaternary Veracruz Basin, which in turn underwent transpressional deformation. Reconstruction of paleo-burial (erosion) and paleo-thermicity through the different zones of the FTB and adjacent foreland is a challenging task since classical calibration tools fail to discriminate between several kinematic and thermal models. In this study results from detailed diagenetic and fluid inclusion (FI) analyses on carbonates from the western part of the Córdoba Platform helped constraining paleo-thermicity. Combined microthermometry, synchrotron FTIR analyses and PVT modeling of cogenetic hydrocarbon-aqueous FI allowed also calculation of absolute pressures. Thermal modeling exercises calibrated with organic maturity parameters, bottom-hole temperatures or temperatures from FI demonstrate that without controlling also paleo-erosion the model results may be misleading.  相似文献   
8.
Submarine channel-levee systems commonly develop in structurally active deepwater settings. Despite their widespread development in such settings, only recently have researchers begun to address the response of channel-levee system evolution to deformation. Key factors which govern channel evolution and morphological development are relative rates of deformation and channel deposition and erosion, and also the number and scale of deformational structures, relative to the scale of the submarine channel. Submarine channel-structure interactions can be split into four end-members: deflection, blocking, diversion and confinement. Where deformation is coeval with channel development, an increase in the relative rate of uplift versus deposition and erosion causes a transition from channel deflection to blocking. Diversion and confinement are linked by the number, scale and orientation of structures relative to the channel flow path. Increasing the number of structures and their scale typically results in channel confinement. Underlying all of these individual controls is the distribution of local accommodation, which is determined by specific structural style. This distribution of accommodation over relatively small (<10 km) length scales strongly affects local channel development in order to attain the equilibrium profile. Knowledge of these controls on submarine channel development can increase our understanding of how these deepwater sedimentary systems evolve and distribute sediment across deforming submarine slopes. Understanding the factors governing spatial variations in channel morphology may also be applied when exploring for hydrocarbon reservoirs in structurally active deepwater settings.  相似文献   
9.
Naga fold thrust belt is an emerging destination for petroleum exploration in eastern India. It is a thin skinned FTB where new initiatives are being taken after a long gap of initial discoveries. In absence of sufficient drilling or quality seismic data in the southern part of the fold thrust belt, fluid pressure regimes remain largely speculative. Using the concept and the formulation for efficient coefficient of basal friction, we have revisited the method and concept of pressure-dependent Coulomb wedge theory for thin skinned thrust belts for deriving the fluid pressure ratio in Naga fold thrust belt. The efficient coefficient of basal friction on the decollement and the fluid ratio of Naga fold thrust belt are estimated to be 0.22 and 0.85 respectively. This indicates an overpressure situation in the wedge. This method of estimating basal friction and fluid pressure is more case-specific and can be obtained from the data of thrust initiation angle and thrust spacing.  相似文献   
10.
In the water jet propulsion system with a positive displacement (PD) pump, the nozzle, which converts pressure energy into kinetic energy, is one of the key parts exerting great influence on the reactive thrust and the efficiency of the system due to its high working pressure and easily occurring cavitation characteristics. Based on the previous studies of the energy loss and the pressure distribution of different nozzles, a model of water jet reactive thrust, which fully takes the energy loss and the nozzle parameters into consideration, is developed to optimize the nozzle design. Experiments and simulations are carried out to investigate the reactive thrust and the conversion efficiency of cylindrical nozzles, conical nozzles and optimized nozzles. The results show that the optimized nozzles have the largest reactive thrust and the highest energy conversion efficiency under the same inlet conditions. The related methods and conclusions are extended to the study of other applications of the water jet, such as water jet cutting, water mist fire suppression, water injection molding.  相似文献   
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