首页 | 官方网站   微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   94篇
  国内免费   1篇
  完全免费   30篇
地球科学   125篇
  2017年   3篇
  2016年   1篇
  2015年   3篇
  2014年   8篇
  2013年   2篇
  2012年   7篇
  2011年   13篇
  2010年   8篇
  2009年   12篇
  2008年   8篇
  2007年   8篇
  2006年   4篇
  2005年   1篇
  2004年   21篇
  2003年   4篇
  2002年   7篇
  2001年   6篇
  2000年   3篇
  1998年   1篇
  1997年   1篇
  1996年   1篇
  1995年   1篇
  1993年   1篇
  1989年   1篇
排序方式: 共有125条查询结果,搜索用时 46 毫秒
1.
Chronic exposure to organic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can lead to the development of resistance to these chemicals, a condition associated with reduced response of CYP1A1, a pollutant-inducible biomarker. We measured CYP1A activity (ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase, EROD) and PCB concentrations in feral fish from the Town Branch/Mud River system (Logan County, KY), a stream historically contaminated with PCBs and partially remediated. As a first step in evaluating the possible development of resistant populations in this system, we measured CYP1A expression and PCB body burdens in resident fish from sites we previously characterized as containing biologically significant levels of CYP1A inducing compounds. Mean PCB concentrations in edible flesh ranged from 75.2 to 16.7 microg/g in fish collected from Town Branch remediated sites and were relatively low (1.23 microg/g) in Town Branch reference site fish. However, hepatic CYP1A activity was similar among individuals of most species collected from reference and contaminated/remediated sites. The absence of elevated CYP1A levels in resident fish species despite the presence of significant PCB body burdens may indicate these fish have developed reduced sensitivity to CYP1A induction, a condition associated with acquired resistance to toxicants.  相似文献   
2.
A field study was carried out to investigate whether polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) could be measured using fluorescence spectrometry. Crabs were collected as part of an integrated study to assess PAH contamination in Southampton Water, UK. Urine was collected from crabs via a non-destructive technique and analysed using fixed wavelength fluorescence (FF) and synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometry (SFS) in order to determine the presence of PAH metabolites, indicative of PAH exposure. By scanning at wavelength pairs specific to a variety of PAH groups the fluorescence of metabolites was analysed and attributed to the following PAH groups; naphthalenes, pyrenes and benzo[a]pyrene (BAP). Naphthalene-type, pyrene-type and BAP-type metabolites were detected using FF and SFS techniques and two distinct parameters were measured; Peak Intensity and Peak Area. Results showed that crabs obtained near a petroleum refinery, a point source of PAH discharge, exhibited significantly higher PAH metabolites for all PAH groups, than at sites sampled along the estuary (ANOVA, p<0.05). This study highlights the effectiveness of using FF and SFS as a rapid and cost-effective biomonitoring tool for detecting PAH contamination.  相似文献   
3.
Norwegian coastal waters are subject to PAH contamination from electrochemical industries such as aluminium smelters. Evidence of PAH exposure has been established in fish and bivalves. The present study tests the applicability of a novel crustacean PAH exposure biomarker to a PAH contamination gradient in the field (Karmsund Strait, SW Norway). Fluorescence analysis of urine samples collected from crabs at each site revealed 1-OH pyrene "equivalent" levels (indicative of pyrogenic PAH contamination) decreased with increasing distance from a point source of pyrogenic PAH (a large aluminium works). The assay was shown to be suitable for the detection of PAH exposure in wild crustacean populations, for discriminating between contaminated and clean sites and is also sufficiently sensitive to detect gradients of PAH contamination. The method provides a rapid, inexpensive and non-destructive measure of biologically available PAH in crustaceans.  相似文献   
4.
Conjugation of phenolic xenobiotics and metabolites through sulfation and glucuronidation is an important biotransformation pathway. Sulfotransferases (SULT) are generally considered non-inducible, while some UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoenzymes are co-induced with cytochrome P450-1A by Ah-receptor ligands. To test these assumptions for two fish species, we measured sulfation and glucuronidation of 9-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene in 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) treated channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and in mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) from the creosote contaminated Atlantic Wood site in the Elizabeth River, VA. The results show a significant induction of both UGT and SULT activity in 3-MC treated catfish, linked to the expected induction of EROD activity. In mummichog, significant induction of UGT was measured at the contaminated site over the reference site (King's Creek, VA), as well as extremely low SULT activities at both sites. Western blots, using a polyclonal antibody for catfish phenol-type SULT, confirmed the absence of phenol-type SULT in mummichog. Residual, though slightly inducible, SULT activity may be attributed to other SULT isoforms.  相似文献   
5.
Environmental Prognostics is proposed as an integrated explanatory framework for adverse changes in whole systems, from cells to animals to ecosystems. The aim is to develop such frameworks for the evaluation of "health of the environment" and prediction of consequences resulting from future environmental events based on integrating the reactions of biomarkers for cellular and physiological processes, through conceptual, statistical and computational modelling. These are urgently needed to synthesise complex information on environmental chemistry and injurious effects of pollutants into predicted harmful impact on health of sentinel animals.  相似文献   
6.
Metallothionein has been assayed in a range of aquatic animal tissues as an indicator of metal exposure. We sequenced chub (Leuciscus cephalus) metallothionein cDNA which showed over 90% homology to common carp, goldfish and stone loach and 77% homology to rainbow trout sequences for metallothionein. We then used the extended primer method to develop an accurate quantitative competitive RT-PCR assay for metallothionein mRNA. RT-PCR was used to measure metallothionein mRNA in feral chub from a range of field sites, with different levels of heavy metal pollution, in the West Midlands, UK. Measurements were complemented by analysis of liver and gill metallothionein protein by capillary electrophoresis. There was no significant difference in the metallothionein protein levels between fish of different rivers and there was no evidence of elevation of mRNA at the sites of highest metal exposure. The level of metal exposure (e.g. zinc, nickel and cadmium each ranging between 15 and 28 microg/l ) at the pH (7.5-8.5) of these rivers appears insufficient to elevate hepatic or gill metallothionein in chub. A lack of elevation of hepatic metallothionein mRNA in chub exposed to zinc, copper and manganese for 24 h and 10 days in the laboratory also suggests a non-responsiveness of this species.  相似文献   
7.
The assessment of DNA damage by the Comet assay has been described as a useful non-specific general biomarker of stress in many marine organisms. In field situations it has successfully been employed to distinguish between reference and polluted sites and in the laboratory it has been widely used as a mechanistic tool to determine pollutant effects and mechanisms of DNA damage. To date a wide range of marine vertebrates and invertebrates have been used, however, the usefulness of this assay as a biomarker in cnidarians has not yet been assessed. The aims of this study were to optimize the Comet assay for cnidarian cells and to assess its utility for detecting genotoxic damage in these cells. Cells were isolated from the North American pacific coast temperate sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima using a non-enzymatic dissociation procedure and viability was determined to be in excess of 90%. Cells were incubated either with (1 h acute exposures) hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), ethylmethanesulphonate (EMS) or benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P). In comparison to other marine species, anemone cells exhibited high control or background levels of DNA strand breaks. Despite this, however, we observed dose responses for each of the study chemicals with no reduction in cell viability. This study demonstrates that anemone cells respond to known DNA damaging agents, including B[a]P which requires metabolism to exert its genotoxic effect, and that the Comet assay may prove to be a useful biomarker of stress in cnidarian species.  相似文献   
8.
Variation in the microbial biomass and community structure found in sediment of heavily polluted bays and the adjacent unpolluted areas were examined using phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Total microbial biomass and microbial community structure were responding to environmental determinants, sediment grain size, depth of sediment, and pollution due to petroleum hydrocarbons. The marker fatty acids of microeukaryotes and prokaryotes - aerobic, anaerobic, and sulfate-reducing bacteria -were detected in sediments of the areas studied. Analysis of the fatty acid profiles revealed wide variations in the community structure in sediments, depending on the extent of pollution, sediment depth, and sediment grain size. The abundance of specific bacterial fatty acids points to the dominance of prokaryotic organisms, whose composition differed among the stations. Fatty acid distributions in sediments suggest the high contribution of aerobic bacteria. Sediments of polluted sites were significantly enriched with anaerobic bacteria in comparison with clean areas. The contribution of this bacterial group increased with the depth of sediments. Anaerobic bacteria were predominantly present in muddy sediments, as evidenced from the fatty acid profiles. Relatively high concentrations of marker fatty acids of sulfate-reducing bacteria were associated with organic pollution in this site. Specific fatty acids of microeukaryotes were more abundant in surface sediments than in deeper sediment layers. Among the microeukaryotes, diatoms were an important component. Significant amounts of bacterial biomass, the predominance of bacterial biomarker fatty acids with abundance of anaerobic and sulfate-reducing bacteria are indicative of a prokaryotic consortium responsive to organic pollution.  相似文献   
9.
The extensive use of biomarkers in environment biomonitoring programmes has raised the problem of data management and intercomparison. A research project (Pollution Effect Network, PEN) is proposed here, consisting of the realisation of an on-line warehouse for biomarker data (http://www.muf.unipmn.it/pen). The web site will contain repository sections and expert system procedures able to integrate information from different biomarkers and provide ranking of the organism health status in terms of synthetic stress syndrome indexes. Researchers accessing the site will be able to submit and process their own data. This will allow common criteria in the evaluation of the biological effects of pollutants, and an intercomparison of biomonitoring data among different geographic areas and sentinel species.  相似文献   
10.
壬基酚对栉孔扇贝组织抗氧化酶活性的影响   总被引:3,自引:1,他引:2  
研究不同浓度的壬基酚(0.05,0.10,0.20,0.40,0.80,1.60mg/L)对扇贝组织超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性的影响。试验进行6h,24h和48h后,分别测定扇贝鳃和消化盲囊组织中2种酶的活性。结果显示:①鳃组织中,0.05,0.10和0.20mg/L处理组中的SOD和CAT活性在试验6h后被轻度激活,24h和48h后出现抑制;0.40,0.80和1.60mg/L处理组的酶活性在整个试验过程中均被抑制。②消化盲囊中,0.05和0.10mg/L处理组中的SOD和CAT活性在试验6h后被轻度激活,24h和48h后被抑制;0.40,0.80和1.60mg/L处理组在整个试验过程中均被抑制。③扇贝消化盲囊组织中的SOD和CAT活性均高于鳃组织,对壬基酚的敏感性也高于后者。④扇贝消化盲囊和鳃组织中的SOD和CAT活性对壬基酚的反应变化趋势相似,二者结合,可以作为壬基酚污染的生物标志物。  相似文献   
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司    京ICP备09084417号-23

京公网安备 11010802026262号