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The Luobusa ophiolite in the Indus—Yarlung Zangbo sutureof southern Tibet hosts the largest known chromite deposit inChina. The podiform chromitites occur in a well-preserved mantlesequence consisting of harzburgite with abundant lenses of dunite.The harzburgites have relatively uniform bulk-rock compositionswith mg-numbers [100 Mg/(Mg + Fe)] ranging from 89 to 91 andshow flat, unfractionated, chondrite-normalized platinum groupelement (PGE) patterns. Their accessory chromite varies widelyin cr-number [100Cr/(Cr + Al)] (18–66). These rocks areessentially residua left after extraction of mid-ocean ridgebasalt (MORB)-type magmas. The podiform chromitites displaynodular, massive, disseminated and banded textures and typicallyhave dunite envelopes that grade into the surrounding harzburgiteand diopsidic harzburgite with increasing pyroxene contents.They consist of relatively uniform chromite with high cr-numbers(74–82), have strongly fractionated, chondrite-normalizedPGE patterns with enrichment in Os, Ir and Ru relative to Rh,Pt and Pt, and are believed to have formed from a boniniticmagma produced by a second stage of melting. Dunites containaccessory chromite intermediate in composition between thoseof harzburgite and chromitite and are believed to be the productsof reaction between new boninitic magmas and old MORB-type peridotites.The melt-rock reaction removed pyroxene from the peridotitesand precipitated oli-vine, forming dunite envelopes around thechromitite pods. The melts thus became more boninitic in compositionand chromite saturated, leading to precipitation of chromitealone. The interplay of melt-rock interaction, chromite fractionationand magma mixing should lead to many fluctuations in melt composition,producing both massive and disseminated chromitites and phaselayering within individual podiform bodies observed in the Luobusaophiolite. KEY WORDS: boninitic magmas; dunite envelope; melt—rock interaction; MORB peridotities; podiform chromitites *Corresponding author. Present address: Department of Geology, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ont, Canada P3E 2C6.  相似文献   
2.
The Luobusa ophiolite, Southern Tibet, lies in the Indus–YarlungZangbo suture zone that separates Eurasia to the north fromthe Indian continent to the south. The ophiolite contains awell-preserved mantle sequence consisting of harzburgite, clinopyroxene(cpx)-bearing harzburgite and dunite. The harzburgite containsabundant pods of chromitite, most of which have dunite envelopes,and the cpx-bearing harzburgites host numerous dunite dykes.Dunite also exists as a massive unit similar to those of themantle–crust transition zones in other ophiolites. Allof the dunites in the ophiolite have a similar mineralogy, comprisingmainly olivine with minor orthopyroxene and chromite and tracesof clinopyroxene. They also display similar chemical compositions,including U-shaped chondrite-normalized REE patterns. Mantle-normalizedPGE patterns show variable negative Pt anomalies. Detailed analysisof a chromite-bearing dunite dyke, which grades into the hostcpx-bearing harzburgite, indicates that LREE and Ir decrease,whereas HREE, Pd and Pt increase away from the dunite. Thesefeatures are consistent with formation of the dunite dykes byinteraction of MORB peridotites with boninitic melts from whichthe chromitites were formed. Because the transition-zone dunitesare mineralogically and chemically identical to those formedby such melt–rock reaction, we infer that they are ofsimilar origin. The Luobusa ultramafic rocks originally formedas MORB-source upper mantle, which was subsequently trappedas part of a mantle wedge above a subduction zone. Hydrous meltsgenerated under the influence of the subducted slab at depthmigrated upward and reacted with the cpx-bearing harzburgitesto form the dunite dykes. The modified melts ponded in smallpockets higher in the section, where they produced podiformchromitites with dunite envelopes. At the top of the mantlesection, pervasive reaction between melts and harzburgite producedthe transition-zone dunites. KEY WORDS: melt–rock interaction; REE; PGE; hydrous melt; mantle; ophiolite; Tibet  相似文献   
3.
The Panzhihua gabbroic layered intrusion is associated withthe 260 Ma Emeishan Large Igneous Province in SW China. Thissill-like body hosts a giant Fe–Ti–V oxide depositwith 1333 million ton ore reserves, which makes China a majorproducer of these metals. The intrusion has a Marginal zoneof fine-grained hornblende-bearing gabbro and olivine gabbro,followed upward by Lower, Middle, and Upper zones. The Lowerand Middle zones consist of layered melanogabbro and gabbrocomposed of cumulate clinopyroxene, plagioclase, and olivine.These zones also contain magnetite layers. The Upper zone consistschiefly of leucogabbro composed of plagioclase and clinopyroxenewith minor olivine. Most rocks in the body show variable-scalerhythmic modal layering in which dark minerals, primarily clinopyroxene,dominate in the lower parts of each layer, and lighter minerals,primarily plagioclase, dominate in the upper parts. The oxideores occur as layers and lenses within the gabbros and are concentratedin the lower parts of the intrusion. Ore textures and associatedmineral assemblages indicate that the ore bodies formed by verylate-stage crystallization of V-rich titanomagnetite from animmiscible oxide liquid in a fluid-rich environment. The rocksof the Panzhihua intrusion become more evolved in chemistryupward and follow a tholeiitic differentiation trend with enrichmentin Fe, Ti, and V. They are enriched in light rare earth elementsrelative to heavy rare earth elements, and exhibit positiveNb, Ta, and Ti anomalies and negative Zr and Hf anomalies. Thesilicate rocks and oxide ores of the Panzhihua intrusion formedfrom highly evolved Fe–Ti–V-rich ferrobasaltic orferropicritic magmas. The textures of the ores and the abundanceof minor hydrous phases indicate that addition of fluids fromupper crustal wall-rocks induced the separation of the immiscibleoxide melts from which the Fe–Ti–V oxide ore bodiesin the lower part of the intrusion crystallized. KEY WORDS: magnetite; Fe–Ti-rich gabbro; layered intrusion; Panzhihua; SW China  相似文献   
4.
Economic concentrations of Fe–Ti oxides occur as massive,conformable lenses or layers in the lower part of the Panzhihuaintrusion, Emeishan Large Igneous Province, SW China. Mineralchemistry, textures and QUILF equilibria indicate that oxidesin rocks of the intrusion were subjected to extensive subsolidusre-equilibration and exsolution. The primary oxide, reconstructedfrom compositions of titanomagnetite in the ores and associatedintergrowths, is an aluminous titanomagnetite (Usp40) with 40wt % FeO, 34 wt % Fe2O3, 16·5 wt % TiO2, 5·3 wt% Al2O3, 3·5 wt % MgO and 0·5 wt % MnO. This compositionis similar to the bulk composition of the oxide ore, as inferredfrom whole-rock data. This similarity strongly suggests thatthe ores formed from accumulation of titanomagnetite crystals,not from immiscible oxide melt as proposed in earlier studies.The occurrence of oxide ores in the lower parts of the Panzhihuaintrusion is best explained by settling and sorting of densetitanomagnetite in the ferrogabbroic parental magma. This magmamust have crystallized Fe–Ti oxides relatively early andabundantly, and is likely to have been enriched in Fe and Tibut poor in SiO2. These features are consistent with fractionationof mantle-derived melts under relatively high pressures (10kbar), followed by emplacement of the residual magma at 5 kbar.This study provides definitive field and geochemical evidencethat Fe–Ti oxide ores can form by accumulation in ferrogabbro.We suggest that many other massive Fe–Ti oxide depositsmay have formed in a similar fashion and that high concentrationsof phosphorus or carbon, or periodic fluctuation of fO2 in themagma, are of secondary importance in ore formation. KEY WORDS: ELIP; Fe–Ti oxide ore; layered intrusion; Panzhihua; QUILF  相似文献   
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