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The Balloon Intercomparison Campaign (BIC) was set up to intercompare remote sensing measurements of a number of compounds other than water vapor; however, water vapor has strong absorption features throughout the infrared and mm wave regions of the spectrum. Therefore many of the investigators involved in BIC have absorption or emission features due to water vapor in the data they obtained during the balloon flights made under the campaign. These features have been used by the investigators to determine the stratospheric water vapor profiles which are compared in this paper. The profiles allow comparison of a wide range of remote sensing techniques involving both emission and absorption in the mid-infrared and emission techniques in the far infrared.  相似文献   
2.
Using the outputs from 16 chemistry-climate models(CCMs), the trends of lower- to mid-stratospheric water vapor(WV) during the period 1980–2005 were studied. Comparisons were made between the CCM results and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts(ECMWF) Interim Reanalysis(ERA-Interim).The results of most of the CCMs, and those based on ERA-Interim, showed the trends of lower- to mid-stratospheric WV during the period 1980–2005 to be positive, with the extent of the trend increasing with altitude. The trend of lower- to mid-stratospheric WV in the ensemble mean of the CCMs was 0.03 ppmv per decade,which was about twice as large as that based on ERA-Interim. The authors also used a state-of-the-art general circulation model to evaluate the impacts of greenhouse gas(GHG) concentration increases and ozone depletion on stratospheric WV. The simulation results showed that the increases of lower- to mid-stratospheric WV affected by the combined effects of GHG and ozone changes happened mainly via warming of the tropopause and enhancement of the Brewer-Dobson circulation(BDC), with the former being the greater contributor.GHG increase led to a higher and warmer tropopause with stronger BDC, which in turn led to more WV entering the stratosphere; while ozone depletion led to a higher and cooler tropopause, which caused the decreases of lowerto mid-stratospheric WV, despite also causing stronger BDC.  相似文献   
3.
To analyze the mechanism by which water vapor increase leads to cooling in the stratosphere, the effects of water-vapor increases on temperature in the stratosphere were simulated using the two-dimensional, interactive chemical dynamical radiative model (SOCRATES) of NCAR. The results indicate that increases in stratospheric water vapor lead to stratospheric cooling, with the extent of cooling increasing with height, and that cooling in the middle stratosphere is stronger in Arctic regions. Analysis of the radiation process showed that infrared radiative cooling by water vapor is a pivotal factor in middle-lower stratospheric cooling. However, in the upper stratosphere (above 45 km), infrared radiation is not a factor in cooling; there, cooling is caused by the decreased solar radiative heating rate resulting from ozone decrease due to increased stratospheric water vapor. Dynamical cooling is important in the middle-upper stratosphere, and dynamical feedback to temperature change is more distinct in the Northern Hemisphere middle-high latitudes than in other regions and signiffcantly affects temperature and ozone in winter over Arctic regions. Increasing stratospheric water vapor will strengthen ozone depletion through the chemical process. However, ozone will increase in the middle stratosphere. The change in ozone due to increasing water vapor has an important effect on the stratospheric temperature change.  相似文献   
4.
A few years ago, we identified a deep convective transport mechanism, of water vapor through the tropopause, namely, storm top gravity wave breaking, such that tropospheric water substance can be injected into the lower stratosphere via this pathway. The main evidence presented previously was taken from the lower resolution AVHRR images of the storm anvil top cirrus plumes obtained by polar orbiting satellites. Recent observations have provided further supporting evidence for this important cross-tropopause transport mechanism. There are now many higher resolution satellite images, mainly from MODIS instrument, that show more definitely the existence of these plumes, many of which would probably be unseen by lower resolution images.Furthermore, a thunderstorm movie taken in Denver (USA) area during STEPS2000 field campaign and another thunderstorm movie taken by a building top webcam in Zurich also demonstrate that the jumping cirrus phenomenon, first identified by T. Fujita in 1980s, may be quite common in active thunderstorm cells, quite contrary to previous belief that it is rare. We have used a cloud model to demonstrate that the jumping cirrus is exactly the gravity wave breaking phenomenon that transports water vapor through the tropopause.These additional evidences provide increasing support that deep convection contributes substantially to the troposphere-to-stratosphere transport of water substance. This corroborates well with recent studies of the stratospheric HDO/H2O ratio which is much highly than it would be if the transport is via slow ascent. The only explanation that can be used to interpret this observation at present is that water substance is transported through the tropopause via rapid vertical motion, i.e., deep convection.  相似文献   
5.
Using a detailed, fully coupled chemistry climate model (CCM), the effect of increasing stratospheric H2O on ozone and temperature is investigated. Different CCM time-slice runs have been performed to investigate the chemical and radiative impacts of an assumed 2 ppmv increase in H2O. The chemical effects of this H2O increase lead to an overall decrease of the total column ozone (TCO) by ~1% in the tropics and by a maximum of 12% at southern high latitudes. At northern high latitudes, the TCO is increased by only up to 5% due to stronger transport in the Arctic. A 2-ppmv H2O increase in the model's radiation scheme causes a cooling of the tropical stratosphere of no more than 2 K, but a cooling of more than 4 K at high latitudes. Consequently, the TCO is increased by about 2%--6%. Increasing stratospheric H2O, therefore, cools the stratosphere both directly and indirectly, except in the polar regions where the temperature responds differently due to feedbacks between ozone and H2O changes. The combined chemical and radiative effects of increasing H2O may give rise to more cooling in the tropics and middle latitudes but less cooling in the polar stratosphere. The combined effects of H2O increases on ozone tend to offset each other, except in the Arctic stratosphere where both the radiative and chemical impacts give rise to increased ozone. The chemical and radiative effects of increasing H2O cause dynamical responses in the stratosphere with an evident hemispheric asymmetry. In terms of ozone recovery, increasing the stratospheric H2O is likely to accelerate the recovery in the northern high latitudes and delay it in the southern high latitudes. The modeled ozone recovery is more significant between 2000--2050 than between 2050--2100, driven mainly by the larger relative change in chlorine in the earlier period.  相似文献   
6.
利用一个耦合的大气化学-气候模式(WACCM3)研究了地表甲烷排放增加对平流层水汽和全球臭氧变化的影响.结果表明,如果地表甲烷的排放量在2000年的基础上增加50%(达到政府间气候变化专门委员会A1B排放情景中2050年的值),平流层水汽体积分数将平均增加约0.8×10-6.南半球平流层甲烷转化为水汽的效率比北半球高.在北半球平流层中,1mol甲烷分子可以转化为约1.63mol的水汽分子,而在南半球1mol甲烷分子大概可以转化为约1.82mol的水汽分子.甲烷排放增加50%将使全球中低纬度地区以及北半球高纬度地区的臭氧柱总量增加1%-3%,使南半球高纬度地区臭氧柱总量增加近8%,而秋季(南半球春季)南极地区臭氧柱总量增加幅度可高达20%,南极臭氧的这种显着增加主要是由于甲烷增加造成的化学反馈所致.在北半球中高纬度地区,甲烷增加引起的臭氧变化主要与甲烷氧化导致的水汽增加有关.研究还表明,未来甲烷排放增加对臭氧的恢复作用其实与溴化物排放的减少一样重要.  相似文献   
7.
The thermodynamic structure on top of a numerically simulated severe storm is examined to explain the satellite observed plume formation above thunderstorm anvils. The same mechanism also explains the formation of jumping cirrus observed by Fujita on board of a research aircraft. A three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic cloud model is used to perform numerical simulation of a supercell that occurred in Montana in 1981. Analysis of the model results shows that both the plume and the jumping cirrus phenomena are produced by the high instability and breaking of the gravity waves excited by the strong convection inside the storm. These mechanisms dramatically enhance the turbulent diffusion process and cause some moisture to detach from the storm cloud and jump into the stratosphere. The thermodynamic structure in terms of the potential temperature isotherms above the simulated thunderstorm is examined to reveal the instability and wave breaking structure. The plumes and jumping cirrus phenomena represent an irreversible transport mechanism of materials from the troposphere to the stratosphere that may have global climatic implications.  相似文献   
8.
Based upon airborne trace gas and isotope observations in the winter months 1991/1992 to1994/1995, transport pathways across the mid-latitude and Arctic tropopause areinvestigated. A powerful set of contrasting transport tracers are examined, such asdeuterated water vapor (HDO) which is shown to trace the passage of water vapor from thetroposphere into the lowermost stratosphere (LS), or the `SF6 age' defined as theresidence time of an air parcel within the stratosphere since its entry at thetropopause. Cross-tropopause transport in both directions was found near mid-latitudecyclones (at baroclinic flanks of troughs in the polar front), in which about 80% of thestratosphere-to-troposphere flux proceeded along potential temperature ()surfaces of 300 ± 10 K. As these isentropes are the lowest which reach into the LS(in winter), a mixing zone just above the Arctic tropopause (at least 1.5 km thick) isformed. Here, upwelling tropospheric air is mixed with downwelling LS air which isaffected by air from higher altitudes, the surf-zone and the polar vortex. The observedelevated D/H isotope ratio of water vapor within the mixing zone can be explained byinjection of subtropical water vapor that is transported to the tropopause by the warmconveyor belt associated with mid-latitude cyclones. Downward vertical transport ofArctic LS air, which may be influenced by ouflowing chemically disturbed polar vortexair, into the Arctic troposphere was found to be small.  相似文献   
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