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1.
1.InttoductionIftheinitialfieldsarenotingeostrophicbalance,theadjustmentandevolutionwilloccurinthestratifiedfluid,andthefrontogenesiswilloccurundersuitableconditions.ThisaspectwasfirstinvestigatedbyRossby(1938),followedbymanyscientists(Blumen,1972;Gill,1976,1982;VanHeijst,1985;BossandThompson,1985;On,1984,1986;McWilliams,1988;Middleton,1987;Glendening,1993;BlumenandWu,1995;WuandBlumen,1995;Grimshaw1998;Blumen,1998;etc.).Intheseresearches,theenergyconversionratioy=AEk/BE,isaninterestin…  相似文献   
2.
This note describes a numerically stable version of the improved Mellor–Yamada (M–Y) Level-3 model proposed by Nakanishi and Niino [Nakanishi, M. and Niino, H.: 2004, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 112, 1–31] and demonstrates its application to a regional prediction of advection fog. In order to ensure the realizability for the improved M–Y Level-3 model and its numerical stability, restrictions are imposed on computing stability functions, on L/q, the temperature and water-content variances, and their covariance, where L is the master length scale and q 2/2 the turbulent kinetic energy per unit mass. The model with these restrictions predicts vertical profiles of mean quantities such as temperature that are in good agreement with those obtained from large-eddy simulation of a radiation fog. In a regional prediction, it also reasonably reproduces the satellite-observed horizontal distribution of an advection fog.  相似文献   
3.
This paper designs three quasi-geostrophic barotropic models with a radial/horizontal grid length being 2 kin,one in the polar coordinates,one on a stationary typhoon circulation condition and another on a non-stationary typhoon circulation condition in the Cartesian coordinates,to investigate the effects of azimuthal and radial linear advections,and nonlinear advection on the inward propagation of mesoscale vorticity and the changes of typhoon intensity.Results show that the azimuthal linear advection may result in the formation of spiral vorticity bands;the radial linear advection in a certain parameter set is able to transfer vorticity inwards,leading to a slight enhancement of typhoon;the nonlinear advection of perturbation vorticity on a stationary typhoon circulation condition may transfer more vorticities inwards,thus resulting in a distinct enhancement of typhoon;and the nonlinear advection on a non-stationary typhoon circulation condition possesses duality,i.e.on the one hand,the advection increases the vorticity of inward propagation,thus favorable to the intensification of typhoon,and on the other hand,in the inward propagation process of vorticity the originally concentric and axisymmetric structure of typhoon basic flow is damaged,and a complex flow pattern forms,which in turn tends to weaken the circulation of typhoon.At last the paper discusses the possible applications of those results in typhoon intensity prediction.  相似文献   
4.
1. Introduction The relationship between frontogenesis and convec- ?tion has been studied intensively by many researchers ? ? ?(Orlanski and Ross, 1977 Ross and Orlansk…  相似文献   
5.
Now more comprehensive cloud microphysical processes have been included in advanced three-dimensional mesoscale meteorological model such as PSU/NCAR MM5 model,so the model can be used in the prediction of fog.In this paper,MM5 was utilized to simulate an advection fog occurring in Nanling Mountain area.The simulated results were compared with the facts obtained by detailed observation experiment.The results showed that the simulation was successful in the following aspects:(1)the formation and development of the fog;(2)the temporal variation of the maximum liquid water content;(3)the diffusion of the cold air,especially the temporal variation of the ground temperature;and (4)the uplift of the air and the formation and development of the low-lever inversion.Besides,we did some sensitivity numerical experiments and discussed the effects of the radiation,the release of condensation latent heat and the change of soil moisture and temperature on the formation and development of fog.The success of numerical simulation experiment of fog has proved that the numerical forecasting of fog is promising.  相似文献   
6.
The development of symmetric disturbance superposed on the background field of Hoskins-Bretherton (1972) frontogenesis model is investigated by means of WKBJ approach,It is found that the forcing of large-scale deformation,the frontal circulation and the spatial-temporal variations of stability parameters (F2,N2,M2) can bring about the development of symmetric disturbance,even though the frontal baroclinic flow is symmetric stable (F2N2-M2>0),The frontogenetical process of deformation confluence zone and the ascending branch of frontal circulation are in favor of the development of symmetric disturbance,The actions of ageostrophic shear in frontal zone and the variation of stability parameters are dependent on the structure of disturbance.  相似文献   
7.
Geostrophic adjustment and frontogenesis are examined by means of the 2-D ARPS model.The simulation shows that.without the large-scale forcing,both the frontogenesis and frontolysisare observed during the geostrophic adjustment process and the intensity of the front oscillates inthe case of no discontinuity.The convergence (divergence) induced by the secondary circulation isthe most important factor for frontogenesis (frontolysis) at the top and bottom boundaries.Theamplitude and period of oscillation are dependent on the initial atmospheric stratification and theCoriolis frequency,and they are related to the inertio-gravity wave.  相似文献   
8.
A uniform,inviscid,incompressible fluid in a two-dimensional plane(x,z)is considered.Three principles:conservation of potential vorticity,conservation of absolute momentum,and conservation of mass are used for this study.If the initial mass field and the initial wind field do not satisfy geostrophic balance,then through geostrophic adjustment under suitable conditions,the frontogenesis will finally occur.Our work points out that the initial density distribution greatly influences the frontal features.If the stratification in cold air is the same as that in warm air,two frontogeneses will occur at top and bottom boundaries respectively.If the stratification in cold air is larger than that in warm air,the frontogenesis at the bottom boundary still exists,but the other at the top boundary disappears.This result makes us further understand the mechanism of the frontogenesis in the real atmosphere.  相似文献   
9.
By using a beta-plane quasigeostrophic barotropic model,four numerical experiments with integration time more than five days are performed.Results show that the vorticity advection term and beta term are two basic factors significantly affecting tropical cyclone structure and motion.  相似文献   
10.
A two-dimensional,semi-geostrophic numerical model incorporating the tropopause and stratosphere is used to investigate the effects of a positive potential vorticity anomaly and latent heat release on the frontogenetic process and the structure of the resulting frontal zone.It is demonstrated that(1) the inclusion of tropopause and stratosphere significantly changes the frontal structure only in the upper levels;(2) a clearly defined quasi-equivalent barotropic structure and a region of upward motion of finite width appear when a positive potential vorticity anomaly exists on the warm side of the maximum baroclinity in the lower troposphere,especially when it is located on the south edge of the baroclinic zone;(3) the above mentioned structure deteriorates as the frontogenesis proceeds in a dry atmosphere but can be maintained in a moist frontogenetic process with condensational heating;(4) the combination of a positive potential vorticity anomaly and the latent heat release is able to accelerate the frontogenesis significantly with the time needed to form an intense frontal zone reduced to less than 15 h.The results have significant theoretical importance in understanding the complex nature of frontal structure and frontogenesis,especially in understanding the dynamic structure of the subtropical frontal zone observed during early summer over East Asia.  相似文献   
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