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1.
云南严重低温霜冻灾害天气个例分析   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
1999年12月下旬特大霜冻灾害是云南1951年以来损失最大的一次自然灾害,受灾面积85万hm^2,直接经济损失55亿元。利用高空和地面气象资料,分析了严重低温霜冻灾害的天气成因,并与历史上的1973/1974、1975/1976年冬季云南两次严重霜冻灾害进行了比较。结果表明:特大霜冻灾害是在云南连续暖冬背景下发生的,对云南经济作物和热带作物的危害最大。高空冷平流与地面冷高压控制下长时间夜间晴空辐射冷却降温是此次重霜冻形成的主要原因,500hPa、700hPa偏北气流和干冷南支槽是主要影响天气系统。碧空无云、静风、湿度小、气温低、气压高、露点温度特低是此次重霜冻的主要气象要素变化特征。冻害以滇南热带作物种植区最为严重。关键词霜冻低温冷平流晴空辐射暖冬  相似文献   
2.
High frequency wind and temperature measurements, obtained in March 1995 from a 10-m tower array situated in south-east Kansas, are used to analyze the structure of a shallow density current. This current is approximately 7 m deep and exhibits a current head that is estimated to be about twice the current depth. The event lasted approximately 900 s and its origin appears to be a shallow slope 2–:5 km to the west of the site, where cold air drainage occurs. The onset of the event is marked by a 5 °C temperature decrease at the 3-m level, increased variance of temperature and of wind velocity, and increased dissipation of kinetic energy, measured by a hot-wire anemometer at the 3-m level. The primary contributors to temperature changes following the frontal passage are both horizontal and vertical advections; contributions from flux divergences of temperature and of radiation, and from dew formation, do not appear to be significant. Postulated frontogenesis, prior to the arrival of the apparent equilibrated front of approximately 176-m width at the site, is examined by means of a theoretical model. The time required to equilibrate the front, by means of kinetic energy dissipation within the frontal zone, is determined to be less than 300 s, or less than the estimated travel time from the orographic slope to the observational site. The absence of upstream data is determined, however, to be a limitation of the analysis performed.  相似文献   
3.
Based on the theoretical background of existing models for the crosswind-integrated footprint, a new model is presented, which, in contrast to the existing models, describes the normalized footprint by a closed analytical formula. This was made possible by using well-known power profiles for wind speed and eddy viscosity instead of Monin–Obukhov based profiles at a certain stage of model development. However, the major difference between the new model and the existing models is that the so-called shape parameter of vertical plume dispersion, a function of upwind distance in the existing models, is set constant in the new model in order to circumvent a formal inconsistency found in the derivation of the existing models. Due to this inconsistency, the existing models do not generally satisfy the fundamental condition that the cumulative normalized footprint must approach unity for the upwind distance tending towards infinity.  相似文献   
4.
Scintillometer measurements were collected over an irrigated wheat field ina semi-arid region in northwest Mexico. Conditions were unstable in the morning andstable during the afternoon, while latent heat fluxes remained high throughout the day.Regional advection was observed during near-neutral conditions. Monin–Obukhovsimilarity relationships for the structure parameter of temperature were verified in both unstable and stable conditions, but were violated close to near-neutral conditions. We found that, using additional measurements of radiation, soil heat flux and windspeed, areally averages of both sensible and latent heat fluxes can be reliably predicted by large aperture scintillometer measurements, as long as the net radiation is greater than zero.  相似文献   
5.
甘肃永登强对流云的雷达气候学特征分析   总被引:11,自引:5,他引:6  
渠永兴  张强  康凤琴 《高原气象》2004,23(6):773-780
利用甘肃永登19年(1971—1985年,1999—2003年)的雷达回波资料,分析了强对流云回波形成及分布特征与甘肃永登地区特殊地形的关系;强对流天气大尺度天气背景和相应的强对流雷达回波的移动、高度、强度和回波谱等特征。结果表明,该区的特殊地形造成气流阻挡并使其折转汇合、垂直运动剧烈加速,使得对流云迅速发展,这是该区对流云形成和分布的决定因素;高空天气形势和对流云结构制约了对流云雷达回波的移动和基本特征。雹云回波谱表明,雹暴对流活动一般均处于旺盛状态,强回波高度和其所处的云内温度是形成雹云的重要条件。  相似文献   
6.
"5.26"甘肃局地强对流天气过程综合分析   总被引:9,自引:5,他引:4  
利用天气图、FY-2卫星云图和兰州新一代天气雷达的基本产品,详细分析了2003年5月26日甘肃强对流天气的环流背景、影响系统、回波演变过程,进一步揭示了强对流发生时,环境流场、物理量场及雷达回波的特征。  相似文献   
7.
TheInfluenceofWeakly-NonlinearVerticalAdvectionontheWindFieldofPBLwithLarge-ScaleOrography①WangLing(王岭)andXuYinzi(徐银梓)Departm...  相似文献   
8.
    
This paper proposes a new two—step non—oscillatory shape—preserving positive definite finite difference advection transport scheme, which merges the advantages of small dispersion error in the simple first-order upstream scheme and small dissipation error in the simple second-order Lax-Wendroff scheme and is completely different from most of present positive definite advection schemes which are based on revising the upstream scheme results. The proposed scheme is much less time consuming than present shape—preserving or non-oscillatory advection transport schemes and produces results which are comparable to the results obtained from the present more complicated schemes. Elementary tests are also presented to examine the behavior of the scheme. This work is supported by the Ntional Natural Science Foundation of China.  相似文献   
9.
华东飑线过程中的地面中尺度物理特征   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
本文利用华东中尺度天气试验资料和雷达回波,分析了9例强飑线过程中逐时地面物理量场的变化。提出中尺度散度场的配置及变化与中尺度强对流天气有十分密切的关系,而中尺度扰动辐合强度演变与锋前暖区内的中尺度扰动风场汇合线有关,这些关系往往能预示中尺度强对流天气的出现和发展。有时,在飑线发展的过程中具有中尺度重力波特征。  相似文献   
10.
陈少平  孙士型  居志刚 《气象》2006,32(5):52-56
利用宜昌多普勒天气雷达回波资料,分析了2001年7月2日发生在三峡坝区瞬间极大风速达28.8m·s-1的强对流风暴。结果发现:在环境风场为偏南气流的引导下,神农架南坡有一条中尺度辐合线,对流云在该辐合线附近生成和发展,然后沿神农架东缘东北移动并影响三峡坝区,表明神农架南坡的山前涌升效应对该强风暴有一定的触发和维持作用。  相似文献   
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