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1.
水汽空间分布对大气船舶重力波影响的数 值试验   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
李子良 《气象学报》2006,64(3):308-314
利用中尺度数值模式ARPS模拟研究了水汽在山脉重力波和大气船波的产生和演变中的作用。研究发现水汽和非绝热效应对大气船波的影响与水汽的空间分布有关,大气船波的产生和演变对水汽的空间分布具有极端的敏感性,在一定条件下水汽的引入有可能减少大气船波的活动。对于3层模式结构的气流过山而言,如果初始的水汽分布在中层大气,则水汽和非绝热效应对大气船波的影响较小,而如果初始的水汽分布在中下层大气,则引入水汽后减少了大气船波的强度,但是如果初始的水汽分布在整个模式大气层,则水汽的引入减少了大气船波的活动。  相似文献   
2.
Motivated by ageostrophic interactions of wave and basic flow,the generalized relationships between 3-dimensional Eliassen-Palm flux and basic flows,which are suitable for small-amplitude and finite-amplitude disturbances,are derived.The local area-averaged and density-weighted mean flows are chosen as the basic flows.Under the assumption that the steady basic flows vary slowly in time and space,a quasi-conservative law of small amplitude wave activity is derived from Ertel's potential vorticity equation in isentropic coordinates. The expressions of the new 3-D Eliassen-Palm flux and wave activity are presented in terms of Eulerian quantities so that they can be readily calculated by using observation data or model output data.  相似文献   
3.
Taking into account moisture in virtue of general potential temperature,the author derive a three-dimensional(3D) pseudomomentum wave-activity relation for the moist atmosphere from the primitive equations in Cartesian coordinates using the Momentum-Casimir method.Since the wave-activity relation is constructed in an ageostrophic and non-hydrostatic dynamical framework,it may be applicable to diagnosing the evolution and propagation of mesoscale systems leading to heavy rainfall.The theoretical analysis shows that,besides the local change of wave-activity flux divergence and source or sink,the wave-activity relation includes two additional forcing terms.The first is the zonal gradient of difference between general potential temperature and potential temperature perturbations,and the second is the covariance of the solenoid and gradient of water vapor,denoting the direct influence of moisture on wave-activity density.The wave-activity density was applied to a heavy precipitation event occurring in the Jianghuai region of China.The calculation showed that the wave-activity density was consistent with 6-h accumulated precipitation observations,in terms of both spatial distribution and temporal tendency.This suggested that the disturbance represented by wave-activity density was closely related to the heavy precipitation.Although the wave-activity flux divergence and the covariance of the solenoid and gradient of water vapor made the primary contribution to the local change of wave-activity density,the covariance was more remarkable.The zonal gradient of difference between general potential temperature and potential temperature perturbations made a weaker contribution to the waveactivity density.  相似文献   
4.
史恒斌 《高原气象》2015,34(2):436-443
利用NCEP/NCAR再分析资料,通过合成分析、诊断分析等方法研究了淮河流域夏季降水异常年份的大尺度环流场,并且分析了造成这种环流背景的可能原因。结果表明:西风急流在多雨年和少雨年作为波导的作用没有变化,但多雨年西风急流的位置比少雨年偏东。在中高纬地区,多雨和少雨年200 h Pa沿西风急流的定常Rossby波列结构有明显的不同。在多雨年,有一条明显的沿西风急流传播的Rossby波列结构,波源位于西欧和中亚,波汇位于里海和我国淮河流域地区,日本以东的西北太平洋也是明显的波源区;在少雨年,西欧和中亚的波源地区的波活动明显减弱,原来位于淮河流域的波汇区南压到长江以南,西北太平洋上的波活动也明显减弱。这种波列结构的不同可能是造成淮河流域夏季降水异常的一个重要原因。  相似文献   
5.
The variations of regional mean daily precipitation extreme (RMDPE) events in central China and associated circulation anomalies during June, July, and August (JJA) of 1961-2010 are investigated by using daily in-situ precipitation observations and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. The precipitation data were collected at 239 state-level stations distributed throughout the provinces of Henan, Hubei, and Hunan. During 1961-2010, the 99th percentile threshold for RMDPE is 23.585 mm day-1. The number of RMDPE events varies on both interannual and interdecadal timescales, and increases significantly after the mid 1980s. The RMDPE events happen most frequently between late June and mid July, and are generally associated with anomalous baroclinic tropospheric circulations. The supply of moisture to the southern part of central China comes in a stepping way from the outer-region of an abnormal anticyclone over the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea. Fluxes of wave activity generated over the northeastern Tibetan Plateau converge over central China, which favors the genesis and maintenance of wave disturbances over the region. RMDPE events typically occur in tandem with a strong heating gradient formed by net heating in central China and the large-scale net cooling in the surrounding area. The occurrence of RMDPE events over central China is tied to anomalous local cyclonic circulations, topographic forcing over the northeast Tibetan Plateau, and anomalous gradients of diabatic heating between central China and the surrounding areas.  相似文献   
6.
利用NCEP/NCAR再分析资料,通过合成分析、诊断分析等方法,研究了淮河流域夏季降水异常年份的大尺度环流背景,并且分析了造成这种环流背景的可能原因。得到以下主要结论:在副热带地区,对流层低层存在一个自低纬向高纬传播的波列结构。在多雨年从低纬到高纬呈现"+-+-"相间的波列结构,而少雨年则相反,但是多雨年的波列强度要比少雨年强。利用波活动通量进行诊断发现:在多雨年,菲律宾到南海是明显的波源区,我国淮河流域和印度尼西亚是波汇区;在少雨年,印度尼西亚和我国淮河流域是明显的波源区,南海地区是明显的波汇区。这种波列结构的差异可能与淮河流域降水异常存在密切的联系。大气加热的不同可能是产生波列结构的一个重要原因。研究表明,赤道西太平洋大气热源的变化与我国淮河流域降水有密切的联系。印度尼西亚附近的赤道地区加热强,则淮河多雨;加热较弱,则淮河少雨。诊断分析表明,赤道地区加热强度的变化所产生的Rossby波的不同位相,与我国淮河流域降水的异常有密切的联系。  相似文献   
7.
利用波作用理论对台风莫拉克登陆期间的降水进行诊断分析。结果表明:波作用密度异常能在一定程度上指示暴雨雨区发展移动,其异常值的空间分布能够反映雨区上空动力场和热力场的典型垂直结构特征。台风内中尺度波动与暴雨落区宏观上具有一定联系。为了详细研究台风内部的波动特征,利用WRF(Weather Research and Forecasting model)模式模拟的高分辨率资料对台风登陆过程中波动特征进行分析,低波数波动的传播主导强对流的非对称分布,2波在登陆初期对对流分布起着关键作用,中尺度波动中同时存在涡旋罗斯贝波以及重力惯性波的特征,对登陆期间涡旋混合的现象有重要作用。  相似文献   
8.
运用WRF模式对2009年7月发生在广西地区的一次暴雨过程进行了数值模拟,并利用模拟结果进行诊断分析。结果表明,模式能够合理地再现此次暴雨天气过程。在对流层中低层,水汽通量散度的负高值区、假相当位温广义波作用量密度和z-螺旋度的正高值区,与强降水落区都存在较好的对应关系;水汽通量散度负值中心大小及负值区向上伸展的高度、假相当位温广义波作用量密度的高值中心值,与降水强度之间存在一定的相关性;z-螺旋度的强度变化对降水强度的增大和减弱也具有较好的指示意义。  相似文献   
9.
“7.21” 暴雨过程动力因子分析和预报研究   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
针对2012年7月21~22日发生在我国华北地区的暴雨过程,利用美国全球预报系统资料对湿热力平流参数、对流涡度矢量的垂直分量、热力波作用密度、热力位涡波作用密度、热力位势散度波作用密度和湿斜压涡度等动力因子进行计算和诊断分析,结果表明,该暴雨过程是由高、低空急流、高空槽、副热带高压、冷锋和辐合切变线等多个天气系统共同作用造成的。降水区具有垂直上升运动强烈,垂直热量输送明显,湿等熵面向下伸展和水平风垂直切变显著等动、热力学特征。湿热力平流参数等动力因子综合反映了上述动、热力垂直结构特征,因而与6小时观测降水的发展移动有一定相关性。全球预报系统48小时预报的动力因子高值区在走向和落区上与6小时观测降水区比较接近,代表动力因子对降水落区有一定的指示意义。利用全球预报系统的预报场资料对动力因子暴雨预报方程进行计算,结果表明,在降水中心位置预报方面,动力因子降水预报比全球预报系统本身的降水预报更接近观测实况。ETS(Equitable Threat Score)评分计算表明,对于降水的早期预报,动力因子降水预报评分略高于全球预报系统本身的降水预报评分,说明动力因子暴雨预报方程有一定的降水预报能力,可以应用到实际天气业务预报中。  相似文献   
10.
In this study, the interannual and interdecadal relationship between midsummer Yangtze River-Huaihe River valley (YHRV) rainfall and the position of the East Asia westerly jet (EAWJ) were investigated. The midsummer YHRV rainfall was found to significantly increase after the 1980s. Moreover, the location of the EAWJ was found abnormally south of the climatic mean during 1980–2008 (ID2) compared to 1951–1979 (ID1). During ID2, associated with the southward movement of the EAWJ, an anomalous upper-level conver-gence occurred over middle-high latitudes (35°–55° N) and divergence occurred over lower latitudes (~30°N) of East Asia. Correspondingly, anomalous descending and ascending motion was observed in middle-high and lower latitudes along 90°–130° E, respectively, favoring more precipitation over YHRV. On an interan-nual time scale, the EAWJ and YHRV rainfall exhibited similar relationships during the two periods. When the EAWJ was centered abnormally southward, rainfall over YHRV tended to increase. However, EAWJ-related circulations were significantly different during the two periods. During ID1, the circulation of the southward-moving EAWJ exhibited alternating positive–negative–positive distributions from low to middle– high latitudes along the East Asian coast; the most significant anomaly appeared west of the Okhotsk Sea. However, during ID2 the EAWJ was more closely correlated with the tropical and subtropical circulations. Significant differences between ID1 and ID2 were also recorded sea surface temperatures (SSTs). During ID1, the EAWJ was influenced by the extratropical SST over the northern Pacific; however, the EAWJ was more significantly affected by the SST of the tropical western Pacific during ID2.  相似文献   
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