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YU Liang  MU Mu  Yanshan  YU 《大气科学进展》2014,31(3):647-656
ABSTRACT The impact of both initial and parameter errors on the spring predictability barrier (SPB) is investigated using the Zebiak Cane model (ZC model). Previous studies have shown that initial errors contribute more to the SPB than parameter errors in the ZC model. Although parameter errors themselves are less important, there is a possibility that nonlinear interactions can occur between the two types of errors, leading to larger prediction errors compared with those induced by initial errors alone. In this case, the impact of parameter errors cannot be overlooked. In the present paper, the optimal combination of these two types of errors [i.e., conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP) errors] is calculated to investigate whether this optimal error combination may cause a more notable SPB phenomenon than that caused by initial errors alone. Using the CNOP approach, the CNOP errors and CNOP-I errors (optimal errors when only initial errors are considered) are calculated and then three aspects of error growth are compared: (1) the tendency of the seasonal error growth; (2) the prediction error of the sea surface temperature anomaly; and (3) the pattern of error growth. All three aspects show that the CNOP errors do not cause a more significant SPB than the CNOP-I errors. Therefore, this result suggests that we could improve the prediction of the E1 Nifio during spring by simply focusing on reducing the initial errors in this model.  相似文献   
2.
Using the sea surface temperature (SST) predicted for the equatorial Pacific Ocean by the Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model-gamil (FGOALS-g), an analysis of the prediction errors was performed for the seasonally dependent predictability of SST anomalies both for neutral years and for the growth/decay phase of El Niño/La Niña events. The study results indicated that for the SST predictions relating to the growth phase and the decay phase of El Niño events, the prediction errors have a seasonally dependent evolution. The largest increase in errors occurred in the spring season, which indicates that a prominent spring predictability barrier (SPB) occurs during an El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warming episode. Furthermore, the SPB associated with the growth-phase prediction is higher than that associated with the decay-phase prediction. However, for the neutral years and for the growth and decay phases of La Niña events, the SPB phenomenon was less prominent. These results indicate that the SPB phenomenon depends extensively on the ENSO events themselves. In particular, the SPB depends on the phases of the ENSO events. These results may provide useful knowledge for improving ENSO forecasting.  相似文献   
3.
用CliPAS计划中3个气候模式和中国科学院大气物理研究所耦合模式FGOALS-g短期气候异常回报试验结果,将动力和统计方法相结合,考察了1982—2003年厄尔尼诺/拉尼娜事件发展期和衰减期海表温度春季可预报性障碍现象。结果表明,所考察的耦合模式对ENSO事件预报的误差发展存在明显的季节依赖性,最大误差增长通常发生在春季,发生显著的可预报性障碍现象。进一步分析发现厄尔尼诺事件和拉尼娜事件在发展期的季节预报障碍现象比衰减期明显,以厄尔尼诺事件发展期春季可预报性障碍现象最为显著,拉尼娜事件衰减期季节预报障碍现象不显著。研究还发现,预报误差的增长在ENSO事件冷暖位相具有显著的非对称性,发展期暖位相预报误差强于冷位相,而衰减期冷位相的预报误差比暖位相大。通过回归分析,诊断了海-气相互作用的强度,发现耦合系统在春季最不稳定,使预报误差最易在春季发展,从而导致可预报性障碍。  相似文献   
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