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排序方式: 共有151条查询结果,搜索用时 15 毫秒
1.
利用NCEP/NCAR再分析资料,分析了中低纬地区100hPa高压环流和东风气流的季节、年际和年代际变化,并与南亚高压的相应变化进行对比分析。结果表明,100hPa高压环流中心有明显的季节分布特征,其中心经度的主频区与100hPa南亚高压中心经度的主频区位置较为一致。南亚高压和东风气流的部分特征参数有明显的年际和年代际变化。南亚高压参数有明显的10年和大于20年的振荡周期。东风气流的面积有2~5年的振荡周期,其强度则有4年和15年的振荡周期。  相似文献   
2.
利用海陆热力差指数(ILSTD)、500 hPa位势高度场、向外长波辐射(OLR)资料及NCEP/NCAR月平均再分析数据集,分析东亚夏季风与西北太平洋地区(包括中国南海)热带气旋频数的关系,结果表明,在强夏季风年西北太平洋地区热带气旋频数偏多,而弱夏季风年同期热带气旋频数异常偏少而后期趋于正常,正常夏季风年热带气旋频数基本正常.并结合热带气旋形成的大尺度环流条件,对其动力机制作了初步探讨.  相似文献   
3.
A method is described for the analysis of the interannual variability of background atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. The analysis is carried out on the data from 6 observatories for which records of >8 years were available.A global-scale interannual variation of CO2 concentration in the troposphere with a characteristic time-scale of 2–3 years has been confirmed throughout the period of the records. These variations are estimated to be associated with carbon cycle imbalances of 2–3 Gt or annual net exchanges between the atmosphere and another carbon reservoir(s) at a rate of about 1.2 Gt of carbon per year. Lag correlations and amplitude comparisons between the records suggests a low latitude southern hemisphere origin to this phenomenon.The interannual variations of CO2 increase are found to be correlated with those observed in data for Pacific sea surface temperatures and Pacific witd stress, the Southern Oscillation Index and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. However multiple regression studies found that once the Southern Oscillation index is used as an explanatory variable for CO2 variations, the inclusion of additional geophysical variables does not give any significant improvement in the regression.  相似文献   
4.
In phase Ⅱ of the Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (RMIP) for Asia, the regional climate has been simulated for July 1988 through December 1998 by five regional climate models and one global variable resolution model. Comparison of the 10-year simulated precipitation with the observations was carried out. The results show that most models have the capacity to reproduce the basic spatial pattern of precipitation for Asia, and the main rainbelt can be reproduced by most models, but there are distinctions in the location and the intensity. Most models overestimate the precipitation over most continental regions. Interannual variability of the precipitation can also be basically simulated, while differences exist between various models and the observations. The biases in the stream field are important reasons behind the simulation errors of the Regional Climate Models (RCMs). The cumulus scheme and land surface process have large influences on the precipitation simulation. Generally, the Grell cumulus scheme produces more precipitation than the Kuo scheme.  相似文献   
5.
亚洲夏季风指数的重新评估与季风的长期变化   总被引:9,自引:2,他引:7       下载免费PDF全文
陈桦  丁一汇  何金海 《气象学报》2006,64(6):770-779
使用NCEP/NCAR再分析资料对Webster与Yang的季风指数(WYI)进行计算和修改。WYI定义为850与200 hPa的纬向风差,但通过分析150—100 hPa和200 hPa的环流场、散度场与垂直运动场,发现200 hPa层并不能真正反映亚洲季风系统上层环流的变化,尤其是其最主要的环流特征即热带东风急流的变化,其核心位于150—100 hPa。纬向风切变U850-U(150 100)的值比U850-U200的值远大得多,更能真实反映季风的强度,并且与低层辐合耦合在一起的高层辐散最大位于150 hPa,在对流层高层取150 hPa比200 hPa更能反映季风系统的耦合关系。因此,在对流层上层选择150—100 hPa重新定义季风指数(DHI)为IDH=U8*50-U(*150 100),不但可以更好地表征亚洲纬向风切变中心的强度变化,也可以代表对流层上下层季风系统的变率。分别用季风指数DHI和WYI对亚洲夏季风的长期变化进行研究,发现DHI比WYI更合适。DHI的变化表明亚洲夏季风存在明显的年代际变化及突变,20世纪70年代末之后显著减弱,这主要是由于150—100 hPa层东风的减弱,但这种东风的减弱现象在200 hPa不明显。突变后总的来说:亚洲地区高层东风减弱,表明夏季风减弱;海陆气压差和海陆温差的减小导致季风减弱;相应高空辐散和水汽输送在印度半岛、中南半岛中部、中国华北与东北地区都是减弱的,也表明夏季风减弱。最后比较NCEP/NCAR和ERA-40两种再分析资料研究亚洲夏季风的强度及其长期变化的差异,以作参考。  相似文献   
6.
利用一个全球海洋-大气-海冰耦合模式的300年控制试验资料,针对东亚区域雨带移动和大气环流特征演变的研究发现,华南春季降水是位于副热带的雨带的一部分,而且华南地区4、5月的降水异常具有明显的年际变化特征。在华南4、5月降水偏多年份,前期3月阿留申低压加强,北半球西风减弱,西太平洋海表温度出现负异常,导致冷暖空气在这里相遇造成降水异常。  相似文献   
7.
我国夏季降水与全球海温的耦合关系分析   总被引:11,自引:1,他引:10       下载免费PDF全文
利用我国160个台站从1951~2000年的月降水观测资料和NCEP/NCAR的全球海表温度(SST)资料,分析了我国夏季(6、7、8月)降水的时空变化特征及其与海温的相关,并应用奇异值分解(SVD)方法研究了我国夏季降水分布异常与海温变化的耦合关系。结果表明,我国夏季降水异常的雨型分布主要有3种,这些雨型的时间变化除了有明显的年际变化外,还存在显著的年代际变化。尤其是华北地区的降水从1965年左右开始减少,特别是大约1976年后有显著的减少。SVD分析揭示的我国夏季降水和全球海温异常的耦合关系表明,这种耦合关系最主要的时空变化特征表现在年代际变化的时间尺度上。我国华北和东北南部的夏季降水从1976年前后明显减少,与之显著关联的海温异常的关键区包括太平洋、印度洋以及热带和南大西洋。特别是热带中、东太平洋,印度洋,以及热带和南大西洋海水,从1976年前后也明显增暖。本研究揭示的华北持续干旱与印度洋和大西洋海温的年代际变化的耦合关系,在以往的研究中还未见到,因而有必要在今后的研究中加以重视。我国夏季降水和海温的耦合关系,还表现在长江中下游地区的降水异常与太平洋和大西洋海温异常的显著相关上。当南海和黑潮区域以及相邻的热带西太平洋海区海温为正异常时,热带和北大西洋海温也为正异常;而热带中、东太平洋海温为负异常时,长江中下游地区往往偏涝;反之,该地区则偏旱。  相似文献   
8.
华北5月降水年际变化特征及其成因   总被引:5,自引:4,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
本文采用华北5月降水资料,NCEP资料以及COADS海温资料,借助相关分析、合成分析等方法研究了华北5月降水的总体分布特征,并从总体上探讨了其与海温、大气环流年际变化的关系及其影响机制。结果表明:华北5月降水存在年际变化特征,降水量偏少年份多于偏多的年份,降水偏少年降水量与平均值相差较小,而降水偏多年降水量与平均值相差较大;华北5月降水与(25~50°N,110~145°E)一带大气环流(200 hPa)的年际变化及前期低纬大气环流的年际变化均有显著的正相关关系;中纬度西传Rossby波列与低纬赤道印度洋海温的变化是引起华北5月降水年际变化的重要原因。  相似文献   
9.
On the interannual timescale, the meridional displacement of the East Asian upper-tropospheric jet stream (EAJS) is significantly associated with the rainfall anomalies in East Asia in summer. In this study, using the data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy (NCEP/DOE) reanalysis-2 from 1979 to 2002, the authors investigate the interannual variations of the EAJS‘s meridional displacement in summer and their associations with the variations of the South Asian high (SAH) and the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH), which are dominant circulation features in the upper and lower troposhere, respectively. The result from an EOF analysis shows that the meridional displacement is the most remarkable feature of the interannual variations of the EAJS in each month of summer and in summer as a whole. A composite analysis indicates that the summer (June-July-August, JJA) EAJS index, which is intended to depict the interannual meridional displacement of the EAJS, is not appropriate because the anomalies of the zonal wind at 200 hPa (U200) in July and August only, rather than in June, significantly contribute to the summer EAJS index. Thus, the index for each month in summer is defined according to the location of the EAJS core in each month. Composite analyses based on the monthly indexes show that corresponding to the monthly equatorward displacement of the EAJS, the South Asian high (SAH) extends southeastward clearly in July and August, and the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) withdraws southward in June and August.  相似文献   
10.
Two sets of numerical experiments using the coupled National Center for Environmental Prediction General Circulation Model (NCEP/GCM T42L18) and the Simplified Simple Biosphere land surface scheme (SSiB) were carried out to investigate the climate impacts of fractional vegetation cover (FVC) and leaf area index (LAI) on East Asia summer precipitation, especially in the Yellow River Basin (YRB). One set employed prescribed FVC and LAI which have no interannual variations based on the climatology of vegetation distribution; the other with FVC and LAI derived from satellite observations of the International Satellite Land Surface Climate Project (ISLSCP) for 1987 and 1988. The simulations of the two experiments were compared to study the influence of FVC, LAI on summer precipitation interannual variation in the YRB. Compared with observations and the NCEP reanalysis data, the experiment that included both the effects of satellite-derived vegetation indexes and sea surface temperature (SST) produced better seasonal and interannual precipitation variations than the experiment with SST but no interannual variations in FVC and LAI, indicating that better representations of the vegetation index and its interannual variation may be important for climate prediction. The difference between 1987 and 1988 indicated that with the increase of FVC and LAI, especially around the YRB, surface albedo decreased, net surface radiation increased, and consequently local evaporation and precipitation intensified. Further more, surface sensible heat flux, surface temperature and its diurnal variation decreased around the YRB in response to more vegetation. The decrease of surface-emitting longwave radiation due to the cooler surface outweighed the decrease of surface solar radiation income with more cloud coverage, thus maintaining the positive anomaly of net surface radiation. Further study indicated that moisture flux variations associated with changes in the general circulation also contributed to the precipitation interannual variation.  相似文献   
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