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1.
Progress of Large-Scale Air-Sea Interaction Studies in China   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
This paper summarizes the progress of large-scale air-sea interaction studies that has been achieved in China in the four-year period from July 1998 to July 2002, including seven aspects in the area of the air-sea interaction, namely air-sea interaction related to the tropical Pacific Ocean, monsoon-related air-sea interaction, air-sea interaction in the north Pacific Ocean, air-sea interaction in the Indian Ocean, air-sea interactions in the global oceans, field experiments, and oceanic cruise surveys. However more attention has been paid to the first and the second aspects because a large number of papers in the reference literature for preparing and organizing this paper are concentrated in the tropical Pacific Ocean, such as the ENSO process with its climatic effects and dynamics, and the monsoon-related air-sea interaction. The literature also involves various phenomena with their different time and spatial scales such as intraseasonal,annual, interannual, and interdecadal variabilities in the atmosphere/ocean interaction system, reflecting the contemporary themes in the four-year period at the beginning of an era from the post-TOGA to CLIVAR studies. Apparently, it is a difficult task to summarize the great progress in this area, as it is extracted from a large quantity of literature, although the authors tried very hard.  相似文献   
2.
Boreal wintertime extratropical circulation is studied in relation to the tropical convection during the 1982/83 El Nino and 1988/89 La Nina. The anomaly structure of 1982/83 and 1988/89 over the extratropics reveals remarkably different features as the longitudinal tropical forcing region changes. The Rossby wave source (Positive) shows the largest maximum over East Asia in both years due to the persistent heating from the western Pacific warm pool area. However, the sink term shows contrasting features over the subtropics and extratropics between the two years. In the El Nino year, enhanced tropical convection over the eastern Pacific produces the Rossby wave sink at 10?N and shifted eastward over the North Pacific, while in the La Nina year, the sink area is shifted westward over the North Pacific. The contrasting features between the two events in mean-eddy interaction appears especially over the downstream area of the East Asian Jet. The extension (retraction) of the meanflow eastward (westward) to  相似文献   
3.
将波动-CISK(积云对流加热反馈)、海-气相互作用和蒸发-风反馈都引入一个简单理论模式,研究了他们在驱动热带大气季节内振荡(ISO)中的作用。其结果表明:波动-CISK在减慢激发波的位相速度以接近观测到的热带ISO的移速过程中起主要作用;而蒸发-风反馈的主要作用是使激发波不稳定;海-气相互作用在减慢激发波的移速方面也有一定作用。因此,波动-CISK和蒸发-风反馈可认为是热带ISO的主要动力学机制。本研究还表明,由于蒸发-风反馈和海-气相互作用的影响,激发波是一种频散波,这种频散性可以更好地解释热带大气中ISO的活动特征。  相似文献   
4.
基于观测资料分析,本文讨论了与东亚冬季风(EAWM)异常活动相联系的海-陆-气系统的特征,指出它往往是随后亚洲夏季风异常的一个信号。我们分析并确定了一类重要的海气耦合模态,即EAWM。它所包含的海-气双向相互作用,使该模态的SSTA分布得以发展和持续。特别是在西太平洋和南海等关键地区,SSTA异常将从冬季维持到夏季。在强冬季风年,青藏高原积雪冬季在其东部出现负距平区,春季则延伸到高原西北部。SSTA及高原积雪分布,共同构成调制亚洲季风环流的重要因子,它将有助于1)随后南海季风和季风降水的增强;2)梅雨期西太平洋副高偏北,长江流域少雨;3)夏季我国东北和日本多雨;4)阿拉伯海和印度东北多雨,而印度西南部及孟加拉湾少雨。总之,强EAWM及相联的海气相互作用,一定程度上,预示着亚洲夏季风的活动特征。  相似文献   
5.
全球植被与大气之间碳通量的模式估计   总被引:14,自引:0,他引:14       下载免费PDF全文
用大气植被相互作用模式(AⅥM)模拟了全球陆地植被的净初级生产力(NPP)。AⅥM由相互耦合的两部分组成:物理过程,包括陆地表面水分和能量在土壤、植被与大气之间的传输;以及生理生态过程,如:光合、呼吸、干物质分配、凋落和物候等。全球的植被分为13类,土壤按质地分为6类。用EMDI提供的全球1637个包括不同植被类型的NPP观测点数据对模型进行了检验。NPP模拟的结果表明:全球陆地植被的平均NPP为405.13 g C m-2yr-1,不同植被类型的平均NPP变化范围在99.58 g C m-2yr-l(苔原)到996.2 g C m-2yr-l(热带雨林)之间。全球年总NPP为60.72 Gt C yr-l,其中最大的部分为热带雨林,15.84 Gt C yr-1,占全球的26.09%。最大的碳汇是在北半球的温带。模式模拟的NPP在全球的空间和季节分布是合理的。  相似文献   
6.
In this paper, we first apply the assumption h=εh` of topographic variation (h is the nondimensional topographic height and is a small parameter) to obtain nonlinear equations describing three-wave quasi-resonant and non-resonant interactions among Rossby waves for zonal wavenumbers 1-3 over a wavenumber-two bottom topography (WTBT). Some numerical calculations are made with the fourth-order Rung-Kutta Scheme. It is found that for the case without topographic forcing, the period of three-wave quasi-resonance (TWQR) is found to be in-dependent of the zonal basic westerly wind, but dependent on the meridional wavenumber and the initial amplitudes. For the fixed initial data, when the frequency mismatch is smaller and the meridional wavelength is moderate, its pe-riod will belong to the 30-60-day period band. However, when the wavenumber-two topography is included, the pe-riods of the forced quasi-resonant Rossby waves are also found to be strongly dependent on the setting of the zonal basic westerly wind. Under the same conditions, only when the zonal basic westerly wind reaches a moderate extent, intraseasonal oscillations in the 30-60-day period band can be found for zonal wavenumbers 1-3. On the other hand, if three Rossby waves considered have the same meridional wavenumber, three-wave non-resonant interaction over a WTBT can occur in this case. When the WTBT vanishes, the amplitudes of these Rossby waves are conserved. But in the presence of a WTBT, the three Rossby waves oscillate with the identical period. The period, over a moder-ate range of the zonal basic westerly wind, is in the intraseasonal, 30-60-day range.  相似文献   
7.
A Review of Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction Studies in China   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
A large number of papers have been published and great efforts have been made in the recent 20 years by the Chinese oceanographic and meteorological scientists in the ocean-atmosphere interaction studies. The present paper is an overview of the major achievements made by Chinese scientists aad their collaborators in studies of larger scale ocean-atmosphere interaction in the following oceans: the South China Sea, the Tropical Pacific, the indian Ocean and the North Pacific. Many interesting phenomena and dynamic mechanisms have been discovered and studied in these papers. These achievements have improved our understanding of climate variability and have great implications in climate prediction, and thus are highly relevant to the ongoing international Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) efforts.  相似文献   
8.
The role of halted “baroclinic modes” in the central equatorial Pacific is analyzed. It is found that dominant anomaly signals corresponding to “baroclinic modes” occur in the upper layer of the equatorial Pacific, in a two-and-a-half layer oceanic model, in assimilated results of a simple OGCM and in the ADCP observation of TAO. A second “baroclinic mode” is halted in the central equatorial Pacific corresponding to a positive SST anomaly while the first “baroclinic mode” propagates eastwards in the eastern equatorial Pacific. The role of the halted second “baroclinic mode” in the central equatorial Pacific is explained by a staged ocean-atmosphere interaction mechanism in the formation of El Ni?no: the westerly bursts in boreal winter over the western equatorial Pacific generate the halted second “baroclinic mode” in the central equatorial Pacific, leading to the increase of heat content and temperature in the upper layer of the central Pacific which induces the shift of convection from over the western equatorial Pacific to the central equatorial Pacific; another wider, westerly anomaly burst is induced over the western region of convection above the central equatorial Pacific and the westerly anomaly burst generates the first “baroclinic mode” propagating to the eastern equatorial Pacific, resulting in a warm event in the eastern equatorial Pacific. The mechanism presented in this paper reveals that the central equatorial Pacific is a key region in detecting the possibility of ENSO and, by analyzing TAO observation data of ocean currents and temperature in the central equatorial Pacific, in predicting the coming of an El Ni?no several months ahead.  相似文献   
9.
Based on the evidence available from both observations and model simulations, the author proposes a view that may provide a unified interpretation of the North Atlantic thermohaline variability. Because of the slow response time of the Southern Ocean (millennia) and the relatively faster response time of the North Atlantic (centuries), the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation is controlled predominantly by the climate forcing over the Southern Ocean at the long glacial cycle timescales, but by the North Atlantic climate forcing at the short millennial timescaies.  相似文献   
10.
High latitude air–sea interaction is an important component of the earth’s climate system and the exchanges of mass and energy over the sea-ice zone are complicated processes that, at present, are not well understood. In this paper, we perform a series of numerical experiments to examine the effect of sea-ice concentration on the development of high latitude boundary-layer roll clouds. The experiments are performed at sufficiently high spatial resolution to be able to resolve the individual convective roll clouds, and over a large enough domain to be able to examine the roll’s downstream development. Furthermore the high spatial resolution of the experiments allows for an explicit representation of heterogeneity within the sea-ice zone. The results show that the sea-ice zone has a significant impact on the atmospheric boundary-layer development, which can be seen in both the evolution of the cloud field and the development of heat and moisture transfer patterns. In particular, we find the air-sea exchanges of momentum, moisture and heat fluxes are modified by the presence of the roll vortices (typically a 10% difference in surface heat fluxes between updrafts and downdrafts) and by the concentration and spatial distribution of the sea-ice. This suggests that a more realistic representation of processes over the sea-ice zone is needed to properly calculate the air-sea energy and mass exchange budgets.  相似文献   
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