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1.
A three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic model was used to examine the dynamical characteristics of morning and evening transition periods in the atmosphere over four idealised valleys. The simulations provided detailed structure over full diurnal cycles of the valley-wind system. An essentially two-dimensional simulation (Case 1) clearly showed valley-side slope flows, driven by pressure gradients and modulated by vertical diffusion and Coriolis effects. The rotation of the wind was clockwise on both valley sides, contrary to most observations in nature. Three-dimensional simulations (Cases 2–4) rectified this feature and that for Case 4 satisfactorily modelled the valley-plain wind system throughout the diurnal cycle. Three types of transition were identified with the aid of different tools: hodographs; space-time evolution of the wind fields; and the evolution of the forcing terms in the momentum and temperature equations. Whichever type or Case was considered, the evening transition was longer than the morning one and the along-valley transition followed the along-slope one. In Cases 1 and 4 the evening transition started up to 2 h before sunset and the morning transition started up to 2.5 h after sunrise. In the three-dimensional cases the evening transition began at about 1700 and ended at about 2400, starting at the bottom of the valley and propagating up both valley sides, but at different speeds. It also started at the ground and propagated vertically. The morning transition began at about 0900 and ended at about 1100, also starting at the bottom of the valley and propagating both vertically and up the valley sides, albeit with different regimes on the two sides. The along-valley transition lagged that on the slopes by about 1.5 h. In Case 1 the forcing terms were dominated by the pressure gradient and the vertical diffusion, with the Coriolis effects introducing an along-valley component to the slope flows. The three dimensional cases were more complex, with not only the addition of the effects of advection and horizontal diffusion but also more temporal variation of more of the forcings than in Case 1.  相似文献   
2.
Eight years (1980–1987) of Wake Island rawinsonde data are used to derive atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) depth, integrated boundary-layer moisture, and a measure of boundary-layer ageostrophy. The variability in these processes controls the accumulation of moisture and heat in the tradewind regions and their transport to regions of intense convection. Preliminary analyses using different methods reveal quasi-periodic signals in these data in the 30–60 days range. Cross correlation calculations in this intraseasonal range show that these ABL variables are coherent with each other and with the low-level flow. The integrated ABL variables and the ABL height exhibit local in-phase relationships. At higher frequencies, the analyses show intense diurnal variation of boundary-layer height but only a weak diurnal signal in integrated ABL properties. At the lower frequency range, the analyses show a significant reduction in the amplitude of the seasonal and intraseasonal variation in ageostrophy during the strong El-Niño event of 1982/1983. The results clearly establish a relationship between integrated water vapour and divergent ABL processes (Ekman pumping/suction) in which shallower (deeper) ABLs are associated with mass and moisture divergence (convergence) and higher (lower) sea-level pressure. A possible interpretation in terms of a remote dynamic response of the trade inversion and ABL processes to equatorial deep convection is suggested.  相似文献   
3.
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), perfluoromethane (CF4) and perfluoroethane (C2F6) are strong greenhouse gases with long (>1000 year) atmospheric residence times. We derive emission factors for the major anthropogenic sources and project future emissions for 5 regions and the world. Although firms in many industrialized countries are already limiting emissions, without further policy intervention global emissions will rise 150% (CF4 and C2F6) and 210% (SF6) between 1990 and 2050; radiative forcing will increase 0.026 W m-2. Full application of available low-cost and costless policies in industrialized nations would cut that radiative forcing by one-quarter. Increased forcing due to these gases is small (<2%) relative to other gases but permanent on the timescale of human civilization. We also quantify plausible manipulations to governmental data that will be used to determine compliance with the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, which includes commitments for industrialized countries to regulate these and other greenhouse gases. More complete and transparent data are urgently needed. West European nations, for example, can cut their emissions of these gases by half by 2010 simply by manipulating emission factors within the current bounds of uncertainty.  相似文献   
4.
5.
Daily variations of the hydroxyl radical concentration have been measured during a campaign at the Weybourne Atmospheric Observatory (WAO) in June 1995. These measurements are compared with box model calculations, based on a slightly modified, second generation Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM2). Results from eight days of the comparison are presented. A detailed analysis and discussion of the different source and sink terms is given for two days: Julian Day (JD) 170 (19 June, and 178 (27 June). In both cases excellent agreement between the measurements and the calculation is obtained, indicating that the model describes the OH chemistry sufficiently well. Furthermore, the analysis of these days demonstrate that JD 170 is dominated by the NOx catalysed OH production, whereas JD 178 is influenced by OH formation via ozone photolysis.  相似文献   
6.
广西暴雨时空分布特征   总被引:22,自引:0,他引:22  
黄明策 《广西气象》2006,27(3):9-13
利用1970-2004年广西89个测站逐12h降水实测资料,分析了广西暴雨的时空分布特征。结果表明:广西年均暴雨量的分布具有明显的地域性,暴雨中心区主要位于山脉的迎风坡,地形的强迫作用对暴雨有增幅效应。年均暴雨日数的地域分布与年均暴雨量的分布相一致,但不同的季节年均暴雨日数其地域分布有明显差异。暴雨的日变化具有桂西北夜间暴雨濒数较白昼高,而桂东南则相反的分布特点。广西暴雨过程持续时间一般为1~2d,约占94%,3d以上的强过程只在5~8月份出现。  相似文献   
7.
利用MM5输出的高分辨率资料对“98.5”华南暴雨的湿位涡进行了诊断分析,分析了质量强迫和热力强迫引起的湿位涡异常。结果揭示:降水区位于负湿位涡的下方,负湿位涡的趋势走向与降水区的一致。造成本次暴雨的成因中包括湿对称不稳定和对流不稳定两种机制,湿位涡MPV(moist potential vorticity)的分量MPV2对MPV起主要作用,其中主要是MPV2v的贡献。质量强迫和热力强迫共同作用引起湿位涡异常变化,它们的作用大小相当,在研究暴雨时,不可忽略因降水造成的质量强迫。  相似文献   
8.
伊犁河流域气候资源特点及其时空分布规律研究   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
三面环山向西开敞的地形使伊犁河流域冬季虽受蒙古高压控制,但少有寒流侵袭;夏季虽受副热带低压笼罩,但干热气流难以深入,形成了温和湿润的气候基调。伊犁河流域光热资源充分,尤以降水充沛而成为新疆及亚洲中部干旱区的“湿岛”。由西向东,从河谷盆地到丘陵山地,伊犁河流域气候类型及组合呈现出明显的地域性分布规律,以草原、荒漠草原为主的河谷气候和以森林、森林草原为主的山地气候孕育了伊犁河流域优良的气候特点和多样的气候资源。  相似文献   
9.
河北省冬麦区土壤水分监测预测系统及其应用   总被引:2,自引:1,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
河北省冬小麦生育阶段正值少雨时期,一般年份只有在灌溉的情况下才能满足小麦生长发育的需求,麦区土壤水分实时监测预测对于灌溉决策十分重要。在冬小麦单站多层次土壤水分动态模型(VSMB模型)的基础上,根据河北省麦区从南到北冬小麦发育期和土壤类型的不同进行参数调整和修正,并对数据库进行设计,形成河北省整个冬麦区麦田土壤水分监测预测系统(RSM-MFS)。文中介绍了该系统的基本原理和功能,并对实际应用进行了效果分析。从近年在河北省冬麦区土壤水分的监测预测结果来看,监测相对误差在10%左右,风险预测相对误差在20%左右。  相似文献   
10.
气象激光雷达的发展现状   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5       下载免费PDF全文
王青梅  张以谟 《气象科技》2006,34(3):246-249
激光雷达能用来测量云、雾、能见度、空中风场、大气密度和大气温度,也可以用来监测空气中的有害气体。该文介绍了用于气象探测的半导体激光雷达、微脉冲激光雷达、一般弹性散射激光雷达、多普勒激光雷达、差分吸收激光雷达和Raman激光雷达的发展现状和趋势,认为人眼安全、高重复频率和宽探测范围是气象激光雷达的发展方向。固体激光雷达的气象应用最广泛,微脉冲激光雷达能同时测量云底高度、能见度和获得大气气溶胶消光廓线,有比较好的应用前景,半导体激光雷达是测量云底高度的理想工具。  相似文献   
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