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1.
湖北省集中暴雨特征分析   总被引:3,自引:3,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
定义了湖北省集中暴雨的标准。对1954年以来发生在湖北省的符合标准的12个集中暴雨过程作了详尽的分析,发现集中暴雨为3场以上的暴雨组成:第1场为冷锋暴雨,即东亚大槽建立形成的暴雨,强度较弱;第2场为高原涡(槽)叠在切变线和露点锋上形成的暴雨,强度较强,常常为特大暴雨,或有较弱暴雨夹在其中;第3场为低槽形成的暴雨,强度较弱。归纳出了集中暴雨的环境条件,大中尺度天气学特征,得出了一些有用的结论,对湖北集中暴雨的预报有参考价值。  相似文献   
2.
内蒙古典型农牧交错区作物优化布局决策分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
白美兰  郝润全  侯琼 《气象科技》2006,34(4):460-464
利用线性规划方法,以赤峰地区的巴林左旗为例,分析了内蒙古典型农牧交错区在各种干旱年型以及干旱年型未定的情况下,农作物的最优种植方案。并将此优化方案结果与实际作物种植情况进行效益分析评价,以验证此方案的增产效益,降低种植风险。结果表明:使用确定型或随机型优化方案,实际产量均有明显增产,并且确定型优化方案的增产效益高于随机型方案。但由于受到长期天气预报技术水平的限制,有时未来的干旱年型难以准确判定,此时使用随机型方案,粮食作物增产效益稳定,风险性低。  相似文献   
3.
宁夏区域精细化温度预报业务平台   总被引:4,自引:1,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
介绍以宁夏中尺度数值模式温度预报为基础,以宁夏精细化预报系统温度预报产品为核心,结合自动气象站等多种资料,以图形方式显示、修改和制作宁夏各站逐时温度预报业务平台。该平台以宁夏各地区代表站与该地区其它站之间的回归方程的计算量为依据,在温度预报物理过程不变的情况下,通过修改曲线的方式,完成对大数据量温度预报值的订正。该平台的建成,为制作高时间密度的预报提供了技术支撑。  相似文献   
4.
云南严重低温霜冻灾害天气个例分析   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
1999年12月下旬特大霜冻灾害是云南1951年以来损失最大的一次自然灾害,受灾面积85万hm^2,直接经济损失55亿元。利用高空和地面气象资料,分析了严重低温霜冻灾害的天气成因,并与历史上的1973/1974、1975/1976年冬季云南两次严重霜冻灾害进行了比较。结果表明:特大霜冻灾害是在云南连续暖冬背景下发生的,对云南经济作物和热带作物的危害最大。高空冷平流与地面冷高压控制下长时间夜间晴空辐射冷却降温是此次重霜冻形成的主要原因,500hPa、700hPa偏北气流和干冷南支槽是主要影响天气系统。碧空无云、静风、湿度小、气温低、气压高、露点温度特低是此次重霜冻的主要气象要素变化特征。冻害以滇南热带作物种植区最为严重。关键词霜冻低温冷平流晴空辐射暖冬  相似文献   
5.
利用CINRAD WSR-98D探测飑线天气过程   总被引:5,自引:3,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
根据南昌CINRAD WSR-98D天气雷达获取的2002年4月5日的平均径向速度场和强度场回波资料,结合当日探空、500hPa及地面天气形势等资料分析发现:2002年4月5日的强风夹带飑线天气过程的发生、发展,在高空、地面天气形势及层结稳定度方面均表现出明显特征,同时在多普勒天气雷达回波上也有明显特征。  相似文献   
6.
7.
To what degree the variability of surface features can be identified in the turbulent signals observed in the atmospheric boundary layer is still an unresolved problem. This was investigated by conducting an analytical experiment for a one-dimensional 'chessboard'-type surface-flux distribution on the basis of local free convection scaling. The results showed that, due to their nonlinear dependency on the surface fluxes, the dimensionless gradients of the mean quantities and the dimensionless standard deviations are altered by the surface-flux variability. Furthermore, passive scalars, such as humidity, are considerably more sensitive to surface variability than the main active scalar, temperature. However, the response of the gradients of the mean quantities is fairly negligible in the range of variability studied herein as compared to that of the standard deviations, which were found to be more sensitive to the surface-flux variability. In addition, the phase difference between the active and the passive scalar flux distribution strongly affects the passive scalar turbulence. This dissimilarity between passive and active scalars, or between passive scalars when their source distributions are different, brings into question the use of variance methods for the measurement of a scalar flux, such as evaporation, over variable surfaces. The classical Bowen ratio method, which depends on the validity of the Reynolds analogy for the vertical gradients of the mean quantities, was shown to be relatively more robust. However, under conditions of strong surface variability, it can also be expected to fail.  相似文献   
8.
The spatial variability of turbulent flow statistics in the roughness sublayer (RSL) of a uniform even-aged 14 m (= h) tall loblolly pine forest was investigated experimentally. Using seven existing walkup towers at this stand, high frequency velocity, temperature, water vapour and carbon dioxide concentrations were measured at 15.5 m above the ground surface from October 6 to 10 in 1997. These seven towers were separated by at least 100m from each other. The objective of this study was to examine whether single tower turbulence statistics measurements represent the flow properties of RSL turbulence above a uniform even-aged managed loblolly pine forest as a best-case scenario for natural forested ecosystems. From the intensive space-time series measurements, it was demonstrated that standard deviations of longitudinal and vertical velocities (u, w) and temperature (T) are more planar homogeneous than their vertical flux of momentum (u* 2) and sensible heat (H) counterparts. Also, the measured H is more horizontally homogeneous when compared to fluxes of other scalar entities such as CO2 and water vapour. While the spatial variability in fluxes was significant (>15 %), this unique data set confirmed that single tower measurements represent the canonical structure of single-point RSL turbulence statistics, especially flux-variance relationships. Implications to extending the moving-equilibrium hypothesis for RSL flows are discussed. The spatial variability in all RSL flow variables was not constant in time and varied strongly with spatially averaged friction velocity u*, especially when u* was small. It is shown that flow properties derived from two-point temporal statistics such as correlation functions are more sensitive to local variability in leaf area density when compared to single point flow statistics. Specifically, that the local relationship between the reciprocal of the vertical velocity integral time scale (Iw) and the arrival frequency of organized structures (/h) predicted from a mixing-layer theory exhibited dependence on the local leaf area index. The broader implications of these findings to the measurement and modelling of RSL flows are also discussed.  相似文献   
9.
The purpose of this paper is to test the ability of two quite different models to simulate the combined spatial and temporal variability of the internal boundary layer in an area of complex terrain and coastline during one day. The simple applied slab model of Gryning and Batchvarova, and the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (CSU-RAMS) are tested by comparison with data gathered during a field study (called Pacific '93) of photochemical pollution in the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia, Canada. The data utilised here are drawn from tethered balloon flights, free flying balloon ascents, and downlooking lidar operated from an aircraft flown at roughly 3500 m above sea level. Both models are found to represent the temporal and spatial development of the internal boundary-layer depth over the Lower Fraser Valley very well, and reproduce many of the finer details revealed by the measurements.  相似文献   
10.
A Roughness Sublayer Wind Profile Above A Non-Uniform Surface   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
In atmospheric models for different scales the underlying surface consists of patches of bare soil and plant communities with different morphological parameters. Experimental evidence indicates that there is a significant departure of the wind profile above a vegetative surface from that predicted by the logarithmic relationship, which gives values that are greater than those observed. This situation can seriously disturb the physical picture concerning the transfers of momentum, heat and water vapour from the surface into the atmosphere.The intention of this paper is to generalise the calculation of exchange of momentum between the atmosphere and a non-homogenous vegetative surface, and to derive a general equation for the wind speed profile in a roughness sublayer under neutral conditions. Furthermore, these results are extended to non-neutral cases. The suggested expression for the wind profile is compared with some earlier approaches and the observations obtained above a broad range of plant communities.  相似文献   
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